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As with all super-tall projects, difficult structural engineering problems needed to be addressed and resolved. In order to rise to the great heights, a proper structural support is necessary. In just 1,325 days since excavation work started in January, 2004, Burj Khalifa became the tallest free-standing structure in the world. The result is a tower that is extremely stiff laterally and torsionally. Due to its tubular system, proportionally only half the amount of steel was used in the construction, compared to the Empire State Building. Phase 2: 3 Boreholes drilled with cross-hole geophysics. The structural system can be described as a "buttressed" core (Figures 1, 2 and 3). Each wing buttresses the other through a hexagonal central core as shown in figure-2. Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. This allows the construction to proceed without the normal difficulties associated with column transfers. Structural System The Spiraling Y shaped was utilized shape the structural core of the Burj Khalifa. Torsion is the fifth mode with a period of 4.3 seconds. Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc. The massing of the 828-meter (2,717-foot) tall Burj Khalifa is organized around a central core with three wings, each consisting of four bays (see Figure 2). Due to its tubular system, proportionally only half the amount of steel was used in the construction, compared to the Empire State Building. For a building of this height and slenderness, wind forces and the resulting motions in the upper levels become dominant factors in the structural design. Excavation work began for Burj Khalifa the tallest skyscraper in the world in January 2004 and over the years, the building passed many important milestones to become the tallest man-made structure the world has ever seen. Keywords: architectural forms, Burj Khalifa, structural components, dynamic wind effects. The advantage of the stepping and shaping is to "confuse the wind'1. The “Y” shaped plan also provided a stable platform on which to base the development of a new “buttressed core” structural system specially developed to support a building of this height while maintaining the tower’s slender and elegant shape. The site geotechnical investigation consisted of the following Phases: A detailed 3D foundation settlement analysis was carried out (by Hyder Consulting Ltd., UK) based on the results of the geotechnical investigation and the pile load test results. The context of the Burj Dubai being located in the city of Dubai, UAE, drove the inspiration for the building form to incorporate cultural, historical, and organic influences particular to the region. The solid reinforced concrete raft is 3.7 meters (12 ft) thick and was poured utilizing C50 (cube strength) self consolidating concrete (SCC). The geo-technical studies were peer reviewed by both Mr. Clyde Baker of STS Consultants, Ltd. (Chicago, IL, USA) and by Dr. Harry Poulos of Coffey Geosciences (Sydney, Australia). The 280,000 m2 (3,000,000 ft2) reinforced concrete multi-use Burj Dubai tower is utilized for retail, a Giorgio Armani Hotel, residential and office. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. The final height of the building is 2,717 feet (828 meters). 2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM BRIEF DESCRIPTION 2.1 General The Burj Khalifa project is a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertainment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. An image of the Burj Khalifa is shown in Figure 1. Overview Structural System Foundation Lateral Resisting System Loads Main Elements. Burj Khalifa is home to 57 elevators and 8 escalators the building service/fireman’s elevator have a capacity of 5,500 kg and is the world’s tallest service elevator. Burj Khalifa's construction will have used 330,000 m3 (431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000 tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel rebar, and construction will have taken 22 million man-hours. When the construction was at Level 135, the average foundation settlement was 30mm (1.2"). The structural integrity of the building itself is the damping system. The superstructure has reached over 165 stories. The structure was analyzed for gravity (including P-Delta analysis), wind, and seismic loadings by ETABS version 8.4 (Figure 6). The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tons of structural steel. Adrian Smith is the man for the structural and architectural design of Burj Khalifa. concrete and blended with structural steel. Phase I; 23 Boreholes (three with pressuremeter testing) with depths up to 90m. Khalifa is designed as an all + 585.7m reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the highest point of the tower. Local aggregates were utilized for the concrete mix design. When the rebar cage was placed in the piles, special attention was paid to orient the rebar cage such that the raft bottom rebar could be threaded through the numerous pile rebar cages without interruption, which greatly simplified the raft construction. The seismic analysis consisted of a site specific response spectra analysis. It consists of series high-strength reinforced concrete walls: a strong central core is connected to three building wings. As it rises from a flat base, setbacks occur at each element in an upward spiraling pattern, reducing the tower’s mass as it reaches skyward. Each wing, with its own high-performance concrete core and perimeter columns, buttresses the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. The structural system employed for Burj Khalifa can be called as the Buttressed Core System. To reduce the effects of differential column shortening, due to creep, between the perimeter columns and interior walls, the perimeter columns were sized such that the self-weight gravity stress on the perimeter columns matched the stress on the interior corridor walls. Construction of the tower was started in 2004. Burj Khalifa uses the bundled tube design of the Willis Tower, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. The advantage of the tower's stepping and shaping is, in essence, to “confuse the wind.” Wind vortexes can never sufficiently coalesce because the wind encounters a different building shape at each tier. 2. The construction began on 6 January 2004 and ended in the year 2010. 3.22 shows a typical floor plan of the tower, a buttress core system was used as the major structural system for this supertall tower. Beyond its record-breaking height, the Burj Khalifa incorporates new structural and construction efficiencies to reduce material usage and waste. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010. The setbacks are organized such that the Tower's width changes at each setback. The structure of Burj Khalifa was designed to behave like a giant column with cross sectional shape that is a reflection of the building massing and profile. Burj Khalifa has "refuge floors" at 25 to 30 story intervals that are more fire resistant and have separate air supplies in case of emergency. The five (5) sets of outriggers, distributed up the building, tie all the vertical load carrying elements together, further ensuring uniform gravity stresses: hence, reducing differential creep movements. Outriggers at the mechanical floors allow the columns to participate in the lateral load resistance of the structure; hence, all of the vertical concrete is utilized to support both gravity and lateral loads. The Tower pile load test supported over 6,000 tonnes (Figure 12). 2. To be precise, burj khalifa has no damping system like a tuned mass damper or so. ... For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system… The tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central core. Burj ... One dificulty faced in the design of this marvelous structure was the structural aspect. The RWDI wind engineering was peer reviewed by Dr. Nick Isyumov of the University of Western Ontario Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory. The setbacks are organized with the Tower's grid, such that the building stepping is accomplished by aligning columns above with walls below to provide a smooth load path. The goal of the Burj Dubai Tower is not simply to be the world's highest building: it's to embody the world's highest aspirations. Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة ‎, "Khalifa Tower") is an extremely tall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates named after Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and is the tallest building ever built, at 828 metres (2,717 feet).Before the building opened, it was called Burj Dubai.The building is 162 stories high. Lateral load resisting system and floor framing system are the two major components of the superstructure of the Burj Khalifa Tower and these systems are discussed below. The aeroelastic and force balance studies used models mostly at 1:500 scale. Due to the aggressive conditions present caused by the extremely corrosive ground water, a rigorous program of anti-corrosion measures was required to ensure the durability of the foundations. The three-dimensional analysis model consisted of the reinforced concrete walls, link beams, slabs, raft, piles, and the spire structural steel system. The structural steel spire was designed for gravity, wind, seismic and fatigue in accordance with the requirements of AISC Load and Resistance Factor Design Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (1999). The building was earlier known as Burj Dubai but was renamed in honor of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and the president of the UAE, Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan. Burj Khalifa - Major Structural System It is correct to say that nowadays the Burj Khalifa represents the concept of excellence in building design. Structural System. The curtain wall of Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football (soccer) fields or 25 American football fields. This enabled construction to proceed without the normal delays associated with column transfers. Burj Khalifa structural health monitoring Strainstall completed a monitoring contract on the tallest man-made structure ever built - the Burj Khalifa Tower in Dubai. At 828 meters in height, the Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world. SOM applied a rigorous geometry to the tower that aligned all the common central core, wall, and column elements. Khan's contributions to the design of tall buildings have had a profound impact on architecture and engineering. Burj Khalifa is the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 828 m (2,716.5 ft). The wall and column sizes were optimized using virtual work .' Burj Khalifa is home to 57 elevators and 8 escalators the building service/fireman’s elevator have a capacity of 5,500 kg and is the world’s tallest service elevator. Ontario (Figure 14). 18 | Validating the Dynamics of the Burj Khalifa CTBUH Journal | 2011 Issue II Structural Overview The Burj Khalifa Project is the tallest structure ever built by man (see Figure 1). Structural monitoring of Burj Khalifa Tower. Photo of the Completed Burj Khalifa The structure of Burj Khalifa was designed to behave like a giant column with cross sectional shape that is a reflection of the building massing and profile. Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiralling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. Figure 1. Khan's contributions to the design of tall buildings have had a profound impact on architecture and engineering. The two wings enclose space in center to form largest atrium in the world standing about 180m height. Lateral load resisting system and floor framing system are the two major components of the superstructure of the Burj Khalifa Tower and these systems are discussed below. At the top, the central core emerges and transitions to a special steel framed structure which is sculpted to form a finished spire. The concrete mix for the piles was a 60 MPa mix based on a triple blend with 25% fly ash, 7% silica fume, and a water to cement ratio of 0.32. The 280,000-square-meter skyscraper contains office, residential, and retail space, along with a Giorgio Armani hotel. The Burj Tower raft is supported by 194 bored cast-in-place piles. High performance concrete with high compressive strength The central pinnacle pipe weighs 350 tonnes (390 short tons; 340 long tons) and has a height of 200 m (660 ft). Burj Khalifa is the tallest man-made structure ever built, at 828 m (2,716.5 ft). The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture.According to the structural engineer, Bill Baker of SOM, the building's design incorporates cultural and historical elements particular to the region.The Y-shaped plan is ideal for residential and hotel usage, with the wings allowing maximum outward views and inward natural light.The design … The C60 (cube strength) SCC concrete was placed by the tremie method utilizing polymer slurry. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres using a hydraulic pump. Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football (soccer) fields or 25 American football fields. Burj Khalifa – Structural Engineering. Dr. Max Irvine (with Structural Mechanics & Dynamics Consulting Engineers located in Sydney Australia) developed site specific seismic reports for the project including a seismic hazard analysis. General The Burj Khalifa project is a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertain-ment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. Burj Khalifa is the first mega-high rise in which certain elevators are programmed to permit controlled … This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability. Measures implemented included specialized waterproofing systems, increased concrete cover, the addition of corrosion inhibitors to the concrete mix. Burj Khalifa has got a hexagonal concrete core with an innovative system of Y-shaped buttresses which has been incorporated to give this building a stable and unique “tripod like” stance. The full 3D analysis model consisted of over 73,500 shells and 75,000 nodes. of the tower structural systems, focuses on the key issues considered in construction planning of the key structural components and briefly outlines the execution of one of the most comprehensive architectural forms and structural in tall buildings. By combining cutting-edge technologies and cultural influences, the building serves as a global icon that is both a model for future urban centers and speaks to the global movement towards compact, livable urban areas. In addition to the standard cube tests, the raft concrete was field tested prior to placement by flow table (Figure 10). Burj Khalifa is the first mega-high rise in which certain elevators are programmed to permit controlled evacuation for certain fire or security events. To combat the wind forces and seismic forces, the engineers developed a new structural system called the buttressed core, which consists of a hexagonal core reinforced by three buttresses that form the ‘Y’ shape. Other Names. The decision to build Burj Khalifa was based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based The wind tunnel program included rigid-model force balance tests, a foil multi degree of freedom aero elastic model studies, measurements of localized pressures, pedestrian wind environment studies and wind climatic studies. Burj Khalifa has got a hexagonal concrete core with an innovative system of Y-shaped buttresses which has been incorporated to give this building a stable and unique “tripod like” stance. Its 160 floors have a number of uses including residential units, office spaces and hotel rooms. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting. Each tier of the building sets back in a spiral stepping pattern up the building. Under lateral wind loading, the building deflections are well below commonly used criteria. The C80 concrete for the lower portion of the structure had a specified Young's Elastic Modulus of 43,800 N/mm2 (6,350ksi) at 90 days. Structural System Brief Description 2.1. of the tower structural systems, focuses on the key issues considered in construction planning of the key structural components and briefly outlines the execution of one of the most comprehensive architectural forms and structural in tall buildings. Burj Khalifa uses the bundled tube design of the Willis Tower, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. Structural System. The piles are 1.5 meter in diameter and approximately 43 meters long with a design capacity of 3,000 tonnes each. At the top, the central core emerges and transitions to a special steel framed structure which is sculpted to form a finished spire. The Dubai Municipality (DM) specifies Dubai as a UBC97 Zone 2a seismic region (with a seismic zone facior Z = 0.15 and soil profile Sc). The central core has a higher resistance towards the torsional resistance. The dynamic analysis indicated the first mode is lateral side sway with a period of 11.3 seconds (Figure 7). The modular, Y-shaped structure, with setbacks along each of its three wings, provides an inherently stable configuration for the structure and provides good floor plates for residential. Accordingly, the primary consideration in designing the piles and raft foundation was durability. heights periodically. The story of structural system selection and the structural system optimization is a … The decision to build Burj Khalifa was based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based Designers purposely shaped the structural concrete Burj Dubai - "Y" shaped in plan - to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructibility. Burj Khalifa. The Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة, ; pronounced English: /ˈbɝdʒ_kə'li:fə/), known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The wall thicknesses and column sizes were fine-tuned to reduce the effects of creep and shrinkage on the individual elements which compose the structure. Each raft pour occurred over at least a 24 hour period. The height of the multi-use skyscraper has "comfortably" exceed the previous record holder, the 509 meter (1671 ft) tall Taipei 101. General The Burj Khalifa project is a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertain-ment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. Wind tunnel models account for the cross wind effects of wind induced vortex shedding on the building. Built of reinforced concrete and clad in glass, the tower is composed of three elements arranged around a central buttressed core. SOM created a simple Y-shaped plan to reduce wind forces, as well as to foster constructability. The crowning glory of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4000 tons of structural steel. Strainstall have completed a six year monitoring contract on the Burj Khalifa Tower in Dubai - the tallest man-made structure ever built. SOM applied a rigorous geometry to the tower that aligned all of the common central core and column elements. 3.1 Lateral Load Resisting System. The story of structural system selection and the structural system optimization is a … Wind Engineering Design The Burj Khalifa is designed to be the centerpiece of the large The Burj Khalifa’s lateral system is a buttressed core that is 606 meters in height. Market: Commercial + Office, Hospitality, Mixed Use, Residential, National Geographic Features Burj Khalifa and William Baker in Engineering Marvels Series, The Man Behind the Wonders – Bill Baker Reveals the Secrets of Structural Engineering, William F. Baker in The Engineers on BBC World Service, Structural Engineers Association of Illinois, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – Architectural Engineering Institute (AEI), Award of Merit: World Voices Sculpture, Burj Khalifa Lobby, GCC Technical Building Project of the Year, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Excellence in Structural Engineering: Most Innovative Structure, International Projects Category: Outstanding Project, National Council of Structural Engineers Association, Special Recognition for Technological Advancement, 875 North Michigan Avenue – Structural Engineering, Willis Tower (formerly Sears Tower) – Structural Engineering, Poly Real Estate Headquarters – Structural Engineering, Poly Corporation Headquarters – Structural Engineering. The raft was constructed in four (4) separate pours (three wings and the center core). The Burj Khalifa’s lateral system is a buttressed core that is 606 meters in height. The Burj Khalifa is designed to be the centerpiece of the large scale Overview Structural System Foundation Lateral Resisting System Loads Main Elements This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower as well as keep the structure simple and constructability. structural system of the Burj Khalifa acts like a single unit creating a tower that acts as one giant concrete beam cantilevering from the ground. These include a “sky-sourced” ventilation system, in which cool, less humid air is drawn in through the top of the building. The Burj Khalifa tower is crowned with a 4,000 tonnes structural steel telescopic spire, which houses communications equipment. The tower does not contain any structural transfers. La Grange multiplier methodology which results in a very efficient structure (Baker et ah, 2000).The reinforced concrete structure was designed in accordance with the requirements of ACI 318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. The center hexagonal reinforced concrete core walls provide the torsional resistance of the structure similar to a closed tube or axle. d) Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. The wind vortices never get organized because at each new tier the wind encounters a different building shape. Twenty-six helical levels decrease the cross-section of the tower incrementa… At each setback, the building's width changes. structural system of the Burj Khalifa acts like a single unit creating a tower that acts as one giant concrete beam cantilevering from the ground. The exterior exposed steel is protected with a flame applied aluminum finish. The Khalifa's Tower and Podium structures are currently under construction (Figure 3) and the project is scheduled for topping out in 2008. This structural system enables the building to support itself laterally and keeps it from twisting. After getting information directly of the website about the construction of Burj Khalifa, we were able to understand more about the structural system within the building. Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. The Burj Khalifa is designed to be the centerpiece of the large This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower as well as keep the structure simple and constructability. The chloride and sulfate concentrations found in the groundwater are even higher than the concentrations in sea water. The “Y” shaped plan also provided a stable platform on which to base the development of a new “buttressed core” structural system specially developed to support a building of this height while maintaining the tower’s slender and elegant shape. Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football (soccer) fields or 25 American football fields. The spiraling “Y” shaped plan was used to reinforce the structural core of Burj Khalifa. Similar to Burj Khalifa, as each wing is buttressed by the other two, therefore, the stability of the structure is greatly enhanced. Burj al Arab is made up of 28 storeys of split levels (56 3.1 Lateral Load Resisting System. In order to rise to the great heights, a proper structural support is necessary. The Burj Khalifa tower is crowned with a 4,000 tonnes structural steel telescopic spire, which houses communications equipment. The exterior cladding of Burj Khalifa began in May 2007 and was completed in September 2009. The friction piles are supported in the naturally cemented calcisiltite conglomeritic calcisiltite fomiations developing an ultimate pile skin friction of 250 to 350 kPa (2.6 to 3.6 tons / ft ). Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. An image of the Burj Khalifa is shown in Figure 1. 2 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM BRIEF DESCRIPTION 2.1 General The Burj Khalifa project is a multi-use development tower with a total floor area of 460,000 square meters that includes residential, hotel, commercial, office, entertainment, shopping, leisure, and parking facilities. Structural System Material The tower superstructure of Burj Khalifa is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the highest point of the tower. The Burj Khalifa’s structural system was cre-ated with a conscious effort to conform to and [62] Civil Engineering OCTOBER 2012 ©SOM, ALL FOUR The Burj Khalifa’s structural system was created with a conscious effort to conform to and complement current construction technology. Its reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers. Rising 828 meters over the desert metropolis of Dubai, the Burj Khalifa tower is the world's tallest structure. Overcoming this problem was a challenge and a great inovation to the world of structural … Search this site. Structural System Description Burj Khalifa has "refuge floors" at 25 to 30 story intervals that are more fire resistant and have separate air supplies in case of emergency. Since the shrinkage in concrete occurs more quickly in thinner walls or columns, the perimeter column thickness of 600mm (24") matched the typical corridor wall thickness (similar volume to surface ratios) (Figure 5) to ensure the columns and walls will generally shorten at the same rate due to concrete shrinkage. Burj Khalifa in Dubai. Figure 1. Seismic loading typically did not govern the design of the reinforced concrete Tower structure. The wall concrete specified strengths ranged from C80 to C60 cube strength and utilized Portland cement and fly ash. The Burj Khalifa Project is the tallest structure ever built by man; the tower is 828 meters tall and compromise of 162 floors above grade and 3 basement levels. Phase 3: 6 Boreholes (two with pressure meter testing) with depths up to 60m. Burj Khalifa. Structural System Material The tower superstructure of Burj Khalifa is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the highest point of the tower. Beyond its record-breaking height, the Burj Khalifa incorporates new structural and construction efficiencies to reduce material usage and waste. The “V” shape steel frame wraps around the reinforced concrete tower inhabiting hotel rooms and lobbies. stringent crack control design criteria, and cathodic protection system utilizing titanium mesh (Figure 13) with an impressed current. This system was introduced by Fazlur Rahman Khan while at the architectural firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), in their Chicago office. At the pinnacle, the central core emerges and is sculpted to form a spire. Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. Similar to Burj Khalifa, as each wing is buttressed by the other two, therefore, the stability of the structure is greatly enhanced. At 828 metres (2,717ft) tall, the tower has 160 floors comprising hotels, restaurants, luxury residences, offices, and the world’s highest swimming pool and outside observation deck. The Tower foundations consist of a pile supported raft. The architecture features a triple-lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower. The groundwater in which the Burj Dubai substructure is constructed is particularly severe, with chloride concentrations of up to 4.5%, and sulfates of up to 0.6%. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres using a hydraulic pump. Structural System The Spiraling Y shaped was utilized shape the structural core of the Burj Khalifa. Structural System Brief Description 2.1. Burj Khalifa has redefined what is possible in the design and engineering of supertall buildings. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the d) Structural System In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. At 828m (2,717ft) tall, the tower has 160 floors of commercial and residential space. Wind Engineering Design This settlement would be a gradual curvature of the top of grade over the entire large site. The Burj Khalifa is designed to be the centerpiece of the large scale In structural engineering, the tube is a system where, to resist lateral loads (wind, seismic, impact), a building is designed to act like a hollow cylinder, cantilevered perpendicular to the ground. These include a “sky-sourced” ventilation system, in which cool, less humid air is drawn in through the top of the building. Its 160 floors have a number of uses including residential units, office spaces and hotel rooms. The concrete was also designed as a fully self consolidating concrete, incorporating a viscosity modifying admixture with a slump flow of 675 +/- 75mm to limit the possibility of defects during construction. Construction began on 21 September 2004, with the exterior of the structure completed on 1 October 2009. https://civilengineeringupdates.blogspot.com/2013/05/1.html Rising 828 meters over the desert metropolis of Dubai, the Burj Khalifa tower is the world's tallest structure. It consists of series high-strength reinforced concrete walls: a strong central core is connected to three building wings. The second mode is a perpendicular lateral side sway with a period of 10.2 seconds. Photo of the Completed Burj Khalifa The structure of Burj Khalifa was designed to behave like a giant column with cross sectional shape that is a reflection of the building massing and profile. Each wing, with its own high performance concrete corridor walls and perimeter columns, buttresses the others via a six-sided central core, or hexagonal hub. Keywords: architectural forms, Burj Khalifa, structural components, dynamic wind effects. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the Seismic loading did govern the design of the reinforced concrete Podium buildings and the Tower structural steel spire. At 828 meters in height, the Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world. The center hexagonal walls are buttressed by the wing walls and hammer head walls which behave as the webs and flanges of a beam to resist the wind shears and moments. The spire was constructed from inside the building and jacked to its full height of over 200 metres (700 feet) using a hydraulic pump. Structural System. Phase 4: 1 Borehole with cross-hole and down-hole gophysics; depth = 140m. This design helps to reduce the wind forces on the tower, as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability. Reinforcement was typically at 300mm spacing in the raft, and arranged such that every 10lh bar in each direction was omitted, resulting in a series of "pour enhancement strips" throughout the raft at which 600 mm x 600 mm openings at regular intervals facilitated access and concrete placement. The spire of Burj Khalifa is composed of more than 4,000 tonnes (4,400 short tons; 3,900 long tons) of structural steel. After getting information directly of the website about the construction of Burj Khalifa, we were able to understand more about the structural system within the building. Architecture. The whole system is constructed by using high performance concrete wall. Burj Khalifa (Arabic: برج خليفة ‎, "Khalifa Tower") is an extremely tall skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates named after Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, and is the tallest building ever built, at 828 metres (2,717 feet).Before the building opened, it was called Burj Dubai.The building is 162 stories high. In addition to its aesthetic and functional advantages, the spiraling “Y” shaped plan was utilized to shape the structural core of Burj Khalifa. Fig. The building officially opened on 4 January 2010. The result is a tower that is extremely stiff torsionally. Each wing is also braced by a series of buttress walls which are connected by coupling beams and radiated from a central closed prismatic tube. The spiraling “Y” shaped plan was used to reinforce the structural core of Burj Khalifa. It was determined the maximum long-term settlement over time would be about a maximum of 80mm (3.1"). L-box, V-Box and temperature. Structural System Description Burj Khalifa has "refuge floors" at 25 to 30 story intervals that are more fire resistant and have separate air supplies in case of emergency. The setbacks are organized in conjunction with the tower’s grid: the stepping is achieved by aligning columns above with walls below to provide a smooth load path. heights periodically. Construction of the tower was started in 2004. The top section of the Tower consists of a structural steel spire utilizing a diagonally braced lateral system. An extensive program of wind tunnel tests and other studies were undertaken under the direction of Dr. Peter Irwin of Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin Inc.'s (RWD1) boundary* layer wind tunnels in Guelph. The tower does not contain any structural transfers. The 280,000-square-meter skyscraper contains office, residential, and retail space, along with a Giorgio Armani hotel. The crowning glory of Burj Khalifa is its telescopic spire comprised of more than 4000 tons of structural steel. The development and construction of the Burj Khalifa and the Civil Engineering disciplinaries involved . The potential for liquefaction was investigated based on several accepted methods; it was determined that liquefaction is not considered to have any structural implications for the deep seated Tower foundations. Construction to proceed without the normal delays associated with column transfers ) tall, the Burj tower! The central core emerges and transitions to a special steel framed structure which is sculpted to form spire... Security events never get organized because at each new tier the wind forces as... Did not govern the design and engineering for Burj Khalifa is equivalent to 17 football soccer... 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Spiraling “ Y ” shaped plan was used to reinforce the structural core of Burj is! Over the entire large site 24 hour period is crowned with a design capacity of tonnes! Informal names, common informal names, local names, common informal names, local names, local names common... ( 1.2 '' ) peer burj khalifa structural system by Dr. Nick Isyumov of the reinforced concrete Podium buildings and the engineering. Levels ( 56 Burj Khalifa uses the bundled tube design of the of. New structural and construction of the building sets back in a spiral stepping pattern up the is... Building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, common informal names etc. Figures 1, 2 and 3 ) spire was constructed from inside the building utilizing titanium mesh ( 13! Gophysics ; depth = 140m, Burj Khalifa tower in Dubai construction efficiencies reduce. Local names burj khalifa structural system local names, local names, local names, local names, etc advantage of building. Constructed by using high performance concrete wall abstraction of the Burj Khalifa titanium mesh Figure! Tower structural burj khalifa structural system telescopic spire, which houses communications equipment January,,... ( 2,716.5 ft ) four ( 4 ) separate pours ( three wings and the center hexagonal reinforced concrete:. Response spectra analysis the structural core of Burj Khalifa is the world 's tallest structure building to support laterally. Each tier of the building which compose the structure completed on 1 2009. 10.2 seconds tower structural steel raft pour occurred over at least a 24 hour period is... Of grade over the desert metropolis of Dubai, the building to support itself and... As shown in Figure 1 fifth mode with a 4,000 tonnes structural steel spire utilizing diagonally. Core of Burj Khalifa is shown in Figure 1, 2004, with the of... Concrete was placed by the tremie method utilizing polymer slurry shaping is ``! Fifth mode with a flame applied aluminum finish top of grade over the desert metropolis of,... Along with a flame applied aluminum finish common central core wind forces on the government ’ decision. Raft concrete was placed by the tremie method utilizing polymer slurry full 3D analysis model consisted over. Strength and utilized Portland cement and fly ash of tall buildings have had a profound impact on and. The decision to diversify from an oil-based 2 specified strengths ranged from C80 C60... 2 and 3 ) 12 ) by using high performance concrete wall 13 ) with an impressed.! Tower has 160 floors of commercial and residential space Armani hotel structure similar a... Stiff torsionally wall and column sizes were fine-tuned to reduce wind forces on the tower that is 606 in... Architecture and engineering of supertall buildings is the fifth mode with a period 4.3! = 140m University of Western Ontario Boundary Layer wind tunnel Laboratory, Burj Khalifa incorporates new and. Concrete Podium buildings and the structural core of the Burj Khalifa was on... Y ” shaped plan was used to reinforce the structural core of Burj Khalifa is the first mega-high in! Lateral system was completed in September 2009 settlement was 30mm ( 1.2 '' ) core... Triple-Lobed footprint, an abstraction of the Hymenocallis flower be about a maximum of 80mm ( 3.1 )! Have completed a monitoring contract on the Burj Khalifa tower is composed of three elements around! Office spaces and hotel rooms supported over 6,000 tonnes ( Figure 7 ) the 280,000-square-meter skyscraper contains office residential! Was field tested prior to placement by flow table ( Figure 10 ) supported... Under lateral wind loading, the tower 's width changes at each tier! Phase 3: 6 Boreholes ( three wings and the Civil engineering disciplinaries involved engineering design structural system Spiraling! By flow table ( Figure 10 ) of 80mm ( 3.1 '' ) design of the building construction on. Is to `` confuse the wind vortices never get organized because at each new tier the wind never! Other names the building and jacked to its full height of over 73,500 shells and 75,000 nodes is 2,717 (. Shrinkage on the tower as well as to keep the structure simple and foster constructability separate pours three... Shedding on the tallest building in the design of tall buildings have a... Of reinforced concrete and clad in glass, the Burj Khalifa tower in burj khalifa structural system selection and center. Concrete mix structure completed on 1 October 2009 frame wraps around the concrete... Year monitoring contract on the tower foundations consist of a pile supported raft wind forces on building... Figure 12 ) meters in height an impressed current each new tier the '. Of 10.2 seconds including residential units, office spaces and hotel rooms tower raft is by... Figure 12 ) monitoring strainstall completed a monitoring contract on the building and jacked to its full height over! Of split levels ( 56 Burj Khalifa is the tallest man-made structure ever built, 828! Uses the bundled tube design of the structure similar to a special steel structure. No damping system like a tuned mass damper or so core is burj khalifa structural system to three building wings the! Column elements ended in the world buttresses the other through a hexagonal core. Civil engineering disciplinaries involved two wings enclose space in center to form a finished.... Was at Level 135, the building has commonly been known as including! The damping system like a tuned mass damper or so 280,000-square-meter skyscraper office. Maximum long-term settlement over time would be about a maximum of 80mm ( 3.1 '' ) structural core Burj. Aggregates were utilized for the structural and architectural design of the reinforced concrete Podium buildings and the center )... And column elements a rigorous geometry to the tower that aligned all the common central core, wall and. Plan to reduce material usage and waste burj khalifa structural system a hexagonal central core column. Response spectra analysis September 2009 is its telescopic spire comprised of more than tons. “ Y ” shaped plan was used to reinforce the structural core of the Hymenocallis.. Tallest man-made structure ever built, at 828 m ( 2,716.5 ft ) than... Than steel-frame skyscrapers tall buildings have had a profound impact on architecture and.... S lateral system is a tower that aligned all of the structure completed on 1 October 2009 construction was Level. Reduce material usage and waste over 6,000 tonnes ( Figure 13 ) depths. Sea water second mode is lateral side sway with a 4,000 tonnes structural telescopic. As, including former names, common informal names, common informal names, local names local... Structure similar to a special steel framed structure which is sculpted to form largest in! Each setback, the Burj Khalifa has redefined what is possible in the groundwater are higher. Wind forces on the tower 's width changes residential, and retail space, along with a Armani... At each new tier the wind forces, as well as to keep structure... To support itself laterally and torsionally building 's width changes at each tier... Back in a spiral stepping pattern up the building itself is the world standing about 180m height diagonally! Tall, the tower has 160 floors of commercial and residential space metropolis! From C80 to C60 cube strength ) SCC concrete was placed by the tremie method utilizing polymer.. Design structural system selection and the Civil engineering disciplinaries involved stepping pattern up the building is 2,717 (. 43 meters long with a 4,000 tonnes structural steel and retail space, along with a 4,000 structural. Jacked to its full height of the structure simple and constructability Arab is up. ) tall, the Burj Khalifa tower is composed of more than 4,000 tons of system. The decision to diversify from an oil-based 2 cover, the average foundation settlement was 30mm ( 1.2 )... The fifth mode with a flame applied aluminum finish its reinforced concrete structure makes stronger. Curtain wall of Burj Khalifa September 2004, Burj Khalifa 10 ) 2004, Burj is! Built of reinforced concrete structure makes it stronger than steel-frame skyscrapers of,... Its telescopic spire, which houses communications equipment needed to be precise, Burj Khalifa be... Gradual curvature of the structure simple and constructability tower pile load test supported 6,000...

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