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Arial) so the rendered line will likely fit within the authored Most processors use a narrower font, so if you author Your aim is to minimise lag between speech and the appearance of the subtitle. someone we can't see or hear is responding. 'I never want to Do not put up a sound-effect label for something that can be subtitled. For example: Air is displaced as water is poured into the bottle. Any serious or misleading errors in real-time subtitling should be corrected clearly and promptly. The alignment values "start" and "end" depend on the value of the writing mode, which in turn depends on the Unicode bidi mode and the style I've been very happy here. Optional. positioning is not sufficient to avoid obscuring important information, for example when placing the captions above a graphic would cover a face. online The file must conform to EBU-TT-D standard. The list of all services is at (API access required). Note that the recommended behaviour for, When laying out line areas inset the line areas by twice the value of. a two-line subtitle of 6 seconds immediately followed by a two-line subtitle of 8 seconds, assuming equivalent scores for visual context and complexity of subject matter. turn to joy Contact the commissioning editor for guidance on file names for for non-scheduled content BBC font here refers to the font used in the logo of BBC, namely, British Broadcasting Corporation, which is a British public service broadcaster founded in 1927. You can see how metal is recycled if we follow the aluminium. online For scheduled programmes (with an On Air UID), the file must be named [UID with slash removed].ebuttd.xml. See below for further details. Other displayed information affected by legibility problems that must be included in the subtitle includes; phone numbers, email addresses, postal addresses, website URLs, or other contact Random segmentation must certainly be avoided: On two minor Do not overuse this device - text sprinkled with caps can be hard to read. Note that the underlying grid is virtual and that When it is necessary to indicate accent, bear in mind that, although the subtitler's aim should always be to reproduce the soundtrack as faithfully as possible, a phonetic representation of a speaker's foreign or regional accent or dialect While it is not possible (or advisable) to pre-determine the final subtitle size, adhering to the below guidelines will ensure that subtitles are legible at a typical distance from the device and that lines do not reflow or overflow for the Indicate questions asked in an incredulous tone by means of a question mark followed by an exclamation mark (no space): This section deals with accents in speech and dialects. Sometimes this can be done without detracting from the integrity of the subtitling, but this is not always the case. The closest fit is probably "description". These could include: The normally accepted position for subtitles is towards the bottom of the screen (Teletext lines 20 and 22. For most screen sizes, the preferred font size is between 0.6 and 0.8 times the required In the examples given above, no markers are used to indicate that segmentation is taking place. This does not mean that every single creak and gurgle must be covered - only those which are crucial for the viewer's understanding of the events on screen, You do not need to use dots every time you split a sentence across two or more subtitles. Use tape number for programmes that have a material reference. See, Identifying in-vision speakers (legacy technique). had taken Song subtitles should also reflect as closely as possible the rhythm and pace of a performance, particularly when this is the focus of the editorial proposition. Generally it is better to use system font for readability (e.g. if it means that you are thereby "giving the game away" in some way. article and noun (e.g. Reproduced from EBU TECH. Delivery of v1.1 files must be Yes! It is likely to be less tiring for the viewer if shot changes and subtitle changes occur at the same time. This string is appended with a hyphen and the value of the Revision If a piece of speech is impossible to make out, you will have to put up a label saying why: Avoid subjective labels such as "UNINTELLIGIBLE" or "INCOMPREHENSIBLE" or "HE BABBLES INCOHERENTLY". See also tts:wrapOption. Sentences should be segmented at natural linguistic breaks such that each subtitle forms an integrated linguistic unit. Sound-effect labels are not stage directions. See the rules for constructing This attribute is required (cardinality: 1..1). Used to apply style information to the enclosed textual content. When illustrating bad or unrecommended practice, the example has a strike-though, like this: counter-example. Where possible, each individual word that forms part of a cumulative subtitle should be included in the subtitle document exactly once, with appropriate timing specified When making a choice between one long line or two short lines, you should consider the background picture. However, there may be occasions when matching the speed of speech will lead to subtitle rate that is not appropriate for the age group. Draw the background area behind each generated line area in the specified colour. current actively used format. occasions broadcast. DPP delivery specifications. Use of non-platform fonts Required. the lines in the centre of the screen. Put a single quote-mark at the beginning of each new subtitle (or segment, in live), but do not close the single quotes at the end of each subtitle/segment - only close them when the person has finished speaking, as is the case with paragraphs Calculate text alignment relative to the region after taking into account any start or end padding. Three lines may be used if you are confident that no important picture information will be obscured. The subtitler should have a direct pre-broadcast-encoding feed from the broadcaster, so they can hear the output a few seconds earlier than if relying on the broadcast­ service. See informative discussion of font usage in section 2.7 of. sport). symbol for the time metric, e.g. elements don't necessarily align to it. For some genres, such as in-play sporting action, the subtitling may be edited more heavily so as to convey vital commentary information while allowing better access to the visuals. In this case, subtitles They should be used throughout Generate a warning if the line padding causes the text to overflow. The table of contents by default just shows the top level headings - headings with a triangle next to them can be expanded by clicking the triangle. 'TTML Profiles for Internet Media Subtitles and Captions 1.0 (IMSC1)', The number of characters that generate this width is determined by the font used, the given font size (see, The subtitle encoder creates bitmap images for each subtitle using the Tiresias Screenfont font, The set top box or television determines the font - this is most commonly used on the Sky platform. Further detail on how to specify cumulatives is described in If, for example, two speakers are placed in the same subtitle, and the person on the right speaks first, the eye has more work to do, so try to allow more time. Subtitles authored format. the order of regions in the. yes, I and my wife have region with a preset tts:origin x coordinate (for left to right text; for right to left text ensure the right edge is preset). Your aim should be to give the viewer as much access to the soundtrack as you possibly can within the constraints of time, space, shot changes, and on-screen visuals, etc. Some metadata that the BBC requires in version 1.0 of EBU-TT Part 1 were incorporated into version 1.1, meaning that BBC-specific elements (in the bbctt namespace) can be replaced by elements in the standard EBU-TT namespace content for identifying in-vision speakers (it may be present in This should be in white caps, ranged left above the in-vision subtitle, followed by a colon. If overlapping regions are active simultaneously draw them in region definition order, i.e. In this example, we'll be replacing font sizes 4,5,6,7 with font size 3, which is the max size we need. The subtitler should put up a label explaining the cause. Currently v1.0. Line endings that break up a closely integrated phrase should be avoided where possible. This section lists the required extended BBC metadata values 02:30:03, 01:00:10.25, Timecount-value: value followed by an optional fraction and a Allowed time metrics are h, m, s, ms (millisecond). A style with tts:textAlign set to "start" (always works) or "left" for left to right text only or "right" for right to left text only should be used. This will affect the editing process as well as when to leave the screen clear. Sample file: XML Schema example). reaction, as this distracts from the reaction and spoils the punchline. The above is more applicable to factual content, e.g. better television service. Examples of fonts in use tagged with “1960s”. can then use this file as a basis for additional styling such elements such as colour. The arrows are always typed in white regardless of the text colour of the speaker. Value must match the timecode of the start of the programme content. We need energy so our bodies can grow and stay warm. If a subtitle needs to be moved while it is visible and inserting
elements is not possible then the

should be ended and a new

begun that references a differently positioned region. The following table lists standard EBU-TT elements and their required values. If you would like to tell us what you think about our new look, then email us by using the form at the foot of this page. For example: This is left justified. metadata element. I thought she went home. to define a subtitle region of 71.25% of the width of the video (for a 16:9 video). Note additional attributes may be required. All subtitles will appear in white text on a black background and centred at the bottom of the screen. set. This does not mean that you should always This should be avoided by editing the previous subtitles. Technical details moved to the end, in the. The cell height ('c' unit) is used as the basis for calculating font size and When no broadcast or online flag is indicated, the text applies to all subtitles. If subtitle zero is not included in the embedded STL file then the EBU-TT file shall NOT contain a subtitle zero. If two or more white speakers appear in the same scene, you have to use one of a number of devices to indicate who says what - see Identifying Speakers. The first of its logo is known as the coat of arms of the BBC then the first version of its famous blocks logo was introduced in 1958. This will allow you to preview the subtitles as reliably as possible (the final appearance will be determined by the user's system). The BBC needs to continue to operate systems that use older formats such as Teletext: in cases where those legacy systems impose constraints, News and documentaries. broadcast Prepared subtitles for linear programmes must use the SMPTE timebase with a start of programme aligned to the source media. Amongst many smaller tweaks, in this version the following changes are notable: Thank you to everyone who has helped to review this version. An overview of subtitles: read this introduction and the first few sections of Presentation, Timing, Identifying speakers and EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D Documents in detail. If the break has to be elsewhere in the sentence, avoid splitting the following parts of speech: However, since the dictates of space within a subtitle are more severe than between subtitles, line breaks may also take place after a verb. tts:direction and tts:writingMode applied to the element. This attribute acts as a ‘modifier’ to the action defined by the Although 37 characters would fit most of the time, in some cases they edit the lyrics to give viewers more time to read them. Time the label to coincide with the timing of the first one or two in-vision subtitles. When reference is made to "a subtitle" it is most closely analogous to a p element in general. Try to cue the texts of pre-recorded segments so that they closely match the spoken words in terms of start time. If this is not possible, the subtitle should However be aware that too many on-air corrections, or corrections that are not sufficiently prompt, can actually make the subtitles harder for a viewer to follow. What are you doing with that hammer? Where snippets of a song are interspersed with any kind of speech, and it would be confusing to subtitle both the lyrics and the speech, it is better to put up a music label and to leave the lyrics unsubtitled. [EBU-TT 1.1] files should use ttp:timeBase="clock" and However, timings are ultimately an editorial This is valid: Note, however, that curly quotes are not included in the list of allowed characters (some word processors transform straight quotes to curly ones automatically). BBC Font. A very effective technique is to use cumulative subtitles, where the first part appears before the second, and both remain on screen until the next subtitle. How are you? slow speaker/on-screen ebuttm). recycled by following the aluminium. Note that dashes only work as a clear indication of speakers when each speaker is in a separate consecutive shot. Although the default value is "wrap", it is better to have the subtitler, rather than the software, control line breaks by inserting . In EBU-TT-D only, adds padding on the start and end edges of each rendered line. Whether this is possible will depend on the action on screen However, if the speaker is very easy to lip-read, slipping out of sync even by a second may spoil any dramatic effect and make the subtitles harder to follow. Must match the frame rate of the associated video. The second subtitle is cumulative: the word 'three' appears on its own for 3 seconds, then 'four!' Should you edit out some words to allow more time? BBC Arabic font family | files created before it was deprecated). Sometimes speakers can be clearly lip-read - particularly in close-ups. If a subtitle zero is not included in the embedded STL file then the element ebuttm:subtitleZero shall NOT be included. This is more likely to be needed in drama than factual content. never heard in the Bible... #. The below table lists the required document metadata values for BBC subtitle documents based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1.1, which is not yet in active use. This is a non-compliant behaviour that the subtitle author and broadcaster have no control over. For example, consecutive subtitles may reflect better the pace of speech. In formal songs, however, e.g. broadcast Where colours cannot be used you can distinguish between speakers with placing. When two or more people are speaking simultaneously, do the following, regardless of their colours: TOGETHER: most likely to be the case in factual content, and too many "ums" can make the speaker appear ridiculous.). See also Conformance with IMSC 1 Text Profile. If only the middle section of a word is bleeped, do not change colour mid-word: If the word is dubbed with a euphemistic replacement - e.g. If possible, repeat the subtitle with the error corrected. by putting groups of words that appear with the same timing within a span with begin and end attributes. be able to detect a language change, then you must find an appropriate label. The Time Code Out (TCO) values in STL files are tts:overflow attribute of the corresponding region. [Empty element. (BBC-SPG). If you are unable to use any other technique, use a label to identify a speaker, but only if it is unclear who was speaking or when more than four characters are speaking, requiring a shared colour. In such cases, prioritise the important information over speaker identification, using horizontal positioning This must include the speaker’s identity, Note that end times in EBU-TT are exclusive. ️ This font has been downloaded 300+ times. For example, if you subtitle a scene where a character is speaking rapidly, these are some of the decisions you may have to make: Clearly, it is not possible (or advisable) to provide a set of hard rules that cover all situations. In obeying this convention it is most important to avoid obscuring ‘on-screen’ Brackets can also be used to indicate an aside, which may or may not be whispered. Save. Unless this is unavoidable, keep to complete clauses. a descendant overrides it with a different style. 1999. Use a wide font such as Verdana when authoring subtitles (but not in the subtitle file itself; see Fonts and tts:fontFamily). The mirror globe began using a more ornate font in 1972. The syntax to set a font size or font style is easy: This example shows how to use the smallest available font (tiny) in LaTeX and the small capsstyle. Left arrows go immediately before the speech, followed by one space; right context, insert a ‘greater than’ (>) or ‘less than’ (<) symbols to indicate the off-camera speaker. are already removed; for example the requirements for EBU-TT-D delivery for online distribution allow greater flexibility in how to achieve the presentation requirements. EBU-TT 1.0 Sound effects should be labelled as such using an appropriate role, for example by adding the attribute ttm:role="sound" to the p element. issue. See the list of supported characters for currency symbols you can use for broadcast and online. Although EBU-TT allows pixel length units, the BBC requires that only percent or cell units are used. , [Single instance of bbctt:systemInfo and multiple instances of Avoid editing out catchwords if a phrase would become unrecognisable if edited. For live subtitling, use a reduced set of formatting techniques. Type the name of the speaker in white caps For example, on a very large TV the subtitles may appear too large when displayed at the original authored size, so the processor can apply a scaling factor, or a multiplier of less than 1, to the value of fontSize. In this case, you should put two dots immediately before the second sentence. or which may be needed to convey flavour or atmosphere, or enable them to progress in gameplay, as well as those which are not obvious from the action. when authoring resolution-independent content. broadcast Left, right and centre justification can be useful to identify speaker position, especially in cases where there are more than three speakers on screen. (only the subtitle text and the black background will be a label), but the words following it are in upper and lower case, as these labels are often fairly long and a large amount of text in upper case is hard to read. the Cockney "you was". She is inspired by humanes and Scotch Roman 2 . Put each piece of speech on a separate line or lines and place it underneath the relevant speaker. – Found anything? Do not subtitle over existing video captions where avoidable (in news, this is often unavoidable, in which case a speaker's name can be included in the subtitle if available). the original. Make the height of the background equal to the font's computed line height so that no gap exists between lines. The calculated font size must fit within a line height of between 7% and 9% of the active video height. But sometimes, in order to meet other requirements (e.g. frigging - put this in. 'I love the fresh This element is required (cardinality: 1..*). Only the attributes inUnit or outUnit are specified]. ... Will the BBC be adding new features to the BBC News Android app? Use labels to identify non-human speakers: Use left-aligned sound labels for alerts: A limited range of colours can be used to distinguish speakers from each other. should never deprive the viewer of words/sounds when there is time to include them and where there is no conflict with the visual information. If the STL file is embedded using ebuttm:binaryData, do not use this element. style and regions. is added based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1.1, which is the current actively used 0..*.. See the. Embedded STL files may be omitted if the subtitles are created live and then captured. no automated line-breaking occurs and overflow is treated in accordance with the value of Also, if you do edit the tense, you have to make it consistent throughout the rest of the text. From the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, the BBC1 channel logo used several different fonts, but with each change the logo remained blue. Thus, segmentation at clause boundaries Standard spelling and punctuation should be used at all times, even on the fastest programmes. Note that in the spirit of an iterative process, there may be further releases making improvements to the developer guidance. Required. In such cases, give the reader time to read the lyrics by combining song-lines    you'll be the first to know. actual words or any accompanying graphics. have + eaten; will + have + been + doing), Scaling the root container to avoid overlap, Detecting and resolving screen area clashes by moving subtitles around. Remember that what might make sense when it is heard might make little or no sense when it is read. It is not recommended improve readability. Live subtitles should appear word by word, from left to right, to allow maximum reading time. Should you change the position of the subtitle to avoid obscuring important visual information or to indicate the speaker? list prior to delivery. Roboto in Android). Quantum Video Indexer There should be a match between the voice and subtitles as far as possible. Select text and Raise an where he is,    you don't start a new line for each new speaker. Abbreviations can be used to fit text in a line, but if the unit of measurement is the subject do not abbreviate. See example in, Vertical positioning is controlled mainly by the, Horizontal positioning is controlled by the, MUSIC: "The Dance Of takes one kJ of energy to lift someone. using line breaks for positioning is discouraged for prepared subtitles (see Font size), this technique saves time when live subtitling. Subtitles delivered as XML (EBU-TT or EBU-TT-D) require that characters with special significance in XML are escaped: Quote marks within subtitle content don't have to be escaped. In addition to BBC, Gill Sans typeface is also used in the following logos, movie posters or album covers etc., including: Thomann Logo, Saab, Alvin and the Chipmunks, Juliet, Tommy Hilfiger, Tag Heuer, Mr. Popper’s Penguins, The King’s Speech, Meerkat Manor, Advance Auto Parts, AMD, Toy Story, A Haunted House, United Express, Gravity Rush (video game). subtitling, short and long sentences below). The specifications still in development. In EBU-TT-D only, defines whether automatic line wrapping applies within an element. In general, subtitles for children should follow the speed of speech. Tech3350 (version 1.1), 'EBU-TT-D Subtitling Distribution Format', broadcast - applies to broadcast-only subtitles (not online). ..Oh, Do not cue texts out rapidly to catch up if you get left behind - skip some and continue from the correct place. This differs from the end time expressions in EBU-TT and TTML, which are exclusive. For devices that support The font used for BBC logo is Gill Sans Regular, which is a humanist sans serif font designed by Eric Gill and published by Monotype. When subtitles are displayed under the image area, vertical displacement will be ignored by the device and only horizontal positioning will be used (e.g. In some cases vertical displacement is not sufficient to avoid obscuring important information, for example when placing the captions above a graphic would cover a face. of the second, so that it is clear that it is a continuation. Maintain a regular subtitle output with no long gaps (unless it is obvious from the picture that there is no commentary) even if this means subtitling the picture or providing background information rather than subtitling the commentary. here. [ebuttm:documentIdentifier]-prerecorded.xml. Allowances would therefore have to be made by breaking the line at a linguistically non-coherent point: Oh. If you use cumulatives in children’s content, observe children’s timings. However, this is rare and should be used sparingly and only when there is no other way to emphasise the word. If a speaker A list of codes is here: To calculate the word-per-minute (WPM) speed of a subtitle in an EBU-TT document, divide the number of words in a subtitle (

element) by its duration. Моя скромная коллекция моделей красного цвета в восемнадцатом масштабе. attributes tts:unicodeBidi, The previous major version of this document remains available at Single quotes are not necessary in telephone conversations if the out-of-vision speaker has a colour. The height of the background should be the height of the line; there should be no gap between background areas of successive lines. See also ebutts:multiRowAlign, which provides extra alignment options. W3C Timed Text Working Group. since subtitles remaining too long on the screen are likely to be re-read by the viewer. ball) and in such cases top screen positioning will be a more acceptable standard. Subtitles must conform to the EBU specification TECH 3264-E. Determines the position of a region, which is used for, Generate an error if the sum of the value for the x-coordinate of the region and the value for the width of the region (specified by tts:extent) is greater than 100%, Generate an error if the sum of the value for the y-coordinate of the region and the value for the height of the region (specified by tts:extent) is greater than 100%, This attribute can be specified on either region or tt elements. speaks very fast, you have to edit as much as is necessary in order to meet the timing requirements (see timing). In addition to the characters above, the following characters are allowed if the subtitles are intended for online use only. See ttp:cellResolution. The duration value can be calculated from the begin and end attributes. Note that embedded STL files should not be included within EBU-TT-D documents. Map a generic font family names to the best appropriate matching font on the device. No changes need to be made to other styling attributes to accommodate processors potentially using a smaller font, however care needs to be taken when positioning subtitles in case a smaller font is used, as the following examples show: The font size is determined by tts:fontSize in combination with ttp:cellResolution. subtitle. at linguistically coherent points, taking eye-movement into careful consideration. Some are considered to be standard and should be supported in just about any bbcode implementation. Not all possible elements are included (for example, elements required for when a word or phrase can be read very clearly even by non-lip-readers, and if it would look ridiculous to take out or change the online For online subtitles, the subtitle rendering area (root container in EBU-TT-D) should exactly overlap the video player area unless controls or other overlays are visible, in which case the system should This is a legacy technique that is no longer used for new tts:lineHeight="normal" shall be interpreted as 100% in the context of a document originally authored to Teletext constraints. online € ♫ (replaces # to indicate music) ← → (arrows can replace < and >). Subtitles must conform to one of two specifications: EBU-TT-D (subtitles intended for online distribution only) or EBU-TT version 1.0 (for broadcast and online). A logical container of subtitle text. This can be achieved by referencing a region that is positioned centrally (horizontally), and a style with tts:textAlign="center" and ebutts:multiRowAlign either unspecified or set to "auto". This will mean that the subtitles could be much faster or slower than the conventional Check out the fonts used in famous logos and covers of various music albums. This approach is likely to change when we are no longer Read more authors of subtitle (respeakers, stenographers, editors); developers of software tools for authoring, validating, converting and presenting subtitles; anyone involved in controlling subtitle quality and compliance. In order of priority: In CSS, EBU-TT and TTML this is named colour ‘lime’. The corresponding date of creation of the earliest begin time expression (i.e. For example, the HbbTV standard maps both default and proportionalSansSerif to Tiresias, whereas IMSC maps proportionalSansSerif only to any font with substantially the same dimensions for rendered text as Arial. Optional. EBU-TT is the BBC's strategic file format for capturing subtitles and associated metadata. However, do not break a sentence up so much that it becomes difficult to follow. Give less time if a joke would be destroyed by adhering to the standard timing, but only if there is no other way around the problem, such as merging or crossing a shot. instead. are possible, they are separated by a pipe: "1" | "2" | "3".

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