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Customer edge links (access and trunk) carry traditional VLAN tagged and untagged frames. This course encompasses the basic principles of data center design, tracking its history from the early days of the mainframe to the modern enterprise data center in its many forms and the future. It provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. The most efficient and effective data center designs use relatively new design fundamentals to create the required high energy density, high reliability environment. Both designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 internal and external routing functions are centralized on specific switches. ●      The EVPN address family carries both Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information, thus providing integrated bridging and routing in VXLAN overlay networks. Because the gateway IP address and virtual MAC address are identically provisioned on all VTEPs in a VNI, when an end host moves from one VTEP to another VTEP, it doesn’t need to send another ARP request to relearn the gateway MAC address. The original Layer 2 frame is encapsulated in a VXLAN header and then placed in a UDP-IP packet and transported across the IP network. Table 2. Hyperscale users and increased demand have turned data into the new utility, making quicker, leaner facilities a must. For those with international facilities or a mix of both, an international standard may be more appropriate. A data center is going to probably be the most expensive facility your company ever builds or operates. Depending on the number of servers that need to be supported, there are different flavors of MSDC designs: two-tiered spine-leaf topology, three-tiered spine-leaf topology, hyperscale fabric plane Clos design. Between the aggregation routers and access switches, Spanning Tree Protocol is used to build a loop-free topology for the Layer 2 part of network. Note that ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. However, Spanning Tree Protocol cannot use parallel forwarding paths, and it always blocks redundant paths in a VLAN. Many aspects of this standard reflect the UI, TIA, and BCSI standards. Data centers often have multiple fiber connections to the internet provided by multiple … The impact of broadcast and unknown unicast traffic flooding needs to be carefully considered in the FabricPath network design. The Tiers are compared in the table below and can be found in greater definition in UI’s white paper TUI3026E. This section describes Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn characteristic on these Cisco hardware switches. As an extension to MP-BGP, MP-BGP EVPN inherits the support for multitenancy with VPN using the VRF construct. Interactions or communication between the data accessors is only through the data stor… Data center design and infrastructure standards can range from national codes (required), like those of the NFPA, local codes (required), like the New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code, and performance standards like the Uptime Institute’s Tier Standard (optional). VXLAN, one of many available network virtualization overlay technologies, offers several advantages. ), Cisco’s Massively Scalable Data Center Network Fabric White Paper, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/cloud-systems-management/prime-data-center-network-manager/index.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/data-center-analytics/network-insights-data-center/products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-730116.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/guide-c07-734107.html, https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-743245.html, https://blogs.cisco.com/datacenter/vxlan-innovations-on-the-nexus-os-part-1-of-2, Cisco MDS 9000 10-Gbps 8-Port FCoE Module Extends Fibre Channel over Ethernet to the Data Center Core. AWS pioneered cloud computing in 2006, creating cloud infrastructure that allows you to securely build and innovate faster. FabricPath links (switch-port mode: fabricpath) carry VN-segment tagged frames for VLANs that have VXLAN network identifiers (VNIs) defined. Figure 18 shows a typical design with a pair of spine switches connected to the outside routing devices. That traffic needs to be routed by a Layer 3 function enabled on FabricPath switches (default gateways and border switches). This approach keeps latency at a predictable level because a payload only has to hop to a spine switch and another leaf switch to reach its destination. The traditional data center uses a three-tier architecture, with servers segmented into pods based on location, as shown in Figure 1. It represents the current state. End-host information in the overlay network is learned through the flood-and-learn mechanism with conversational learning. Underlay IP multicast is used to reduce the flooding scope of the set of hosts that are participating in the VXLAN segment. Hosts attached to remote VTEPs are learned remotely through the MP-BGP control plane. ●      It provides VTEP peer discovery and authentication, mitigating the risk from rogue VTEPs in the VXLAN overlay network. The three major data center design and infrastructure standards developed for the industry include:Uptime Institute's Tier StandardThis standard develops a performance-based methodology for the data center during the design, construction, and commissioning phases to determine the resiliency of the facility with respect to four Tiers or levels of redundancy/reliability. Although the concept of a network overlay is not new, interest in network overlays has increased in the past few years because of their potential to address some of these requirements. With this design, tenant traffic needs to take two underlay hops (VTEP to spine to border leaf) to reach the external network. The overlay encapsulation also allows the underlying infrastructure address space to be administered separately from the tenant address space. Architecture & Design Jobs in Davenport, IA posted on Oodle. This architecture is the physical and logical layout of the resources and equipment within a data center facility. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture offers the following main benefits: ●      The MP-BGP EVPN protocol is based on industry standards, allowing multivendor interoperability. Facility ratings are based on Availability Classes, from 1 to 4. VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN supports overlay tenant Layer 2 multicast traffic using underlay IP multicast or the ingress replication feature. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network needs to provide Layer 3 internal VXLAN routing as well as maintain connectivity with the networks that are external to the VXLAN fabric, including the campus network, WAN, and Internet. ●      It provides optimal forwarding for east-west and north-south traffic and supports workload mobility with the distributed anycast function on each ToR switch. Its control-plane protocol, FabricPath IS-IS, is designed to determine FabricPath switch ID reachability information. Benefits of a network virtualization overlay include the following: ●      Optimized device functions: Overlay networks allow the separation (and specialization) of device functions based on where a device is being used in the network. For more information about Cisco DCNM, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/cloud-systems-management/prime-data-center-network-manager/index.html. The multi-tier data center model is dominated by HTTP-based applications in a multi-tier approach. The common designs used are internal and external routing on the spine layer, and internal and external routing on the leaf layer. The modern data center is an exciting place, and it looks nothing like the data center of only 10 years past. The routing protocol can be regular eBGP or any IGP of choice. The spine switch has two functions. Since 2003, with the introduction of virtual technology, the computing, networking, and storage resources that were segregated in pods in Layer 2 in the three-tier data center design can be pooled. Each VTEP performs local learning to obtain MAC address (though traditional MAC address learning) and IP address information (based on Address Resolution Protocol [ARP] snooping) from its locally attached hosts. Cisco Data Center Network Manager (DCNM) is a management system for the Cisco® Unified Fabric. The spine switch is just part of the underlay Layer 3 IP network to transport the VXLAN encapsulated packets. The control-plane learns end-host Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information (MAC and IP addresses) and distributes this information through the EVPN address family, thus providing integrated bridging and routing in VXLAN overlay networks. For feature support and more information about TRM, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. With Layer 2 segments extended across all the pods, the data center administrator can create a central, more flexible resource pool that can be reallocated based on needs. Traditional three-tier data center design. The Azure Architecture Center provides best practices for running your workloads on Azure. The border leaf switch learns external routes and advertises them to the EVPN domain as EVPN routes so that other VTEP leaf nodes can also learn about the external routes for sending outbound traffic. It extends Layer 2 segments over a Layer 3 infrastructure to build Layer 2 overlay logical networks. It provides control-plane and data-plane separation and a unified control plane for both Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in a VXLAN overlay network. ●      It provides mechanisms for building active-active multihoming at Layer 2. The routing protocol can be regular eBGP or any Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) of choice. Because the fabric network is so large, MSDC customers typically use software-based approaches to introduce more automation and more modularity into the network. Cisco VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network multitenancy, Cisco VXLAN MP BGP-EVPN spine-and-leaf network summary. Cisco MSDC Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network. This traffic needs to be handled efficiently, with low and predictable latency. It also introduces a control-plane protocol called FabricPath Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS). The spine switch can also be configured to send EVPN routes learned in the Layer 2 VPN EVPN address family to the IPv4 or IPv6 unicast address family and advertise them to the external routing device. But most networks are not pure Layer 2 networks. A typical FabricPath network uses a spine-and-leaf architecture. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, it suffers the same flooding challenges as a FabricPath spine-and-leaf network. The architecture consists of core routers, aggregation routers (sometimes called distribution routers), and access switches. The leaf layer consists of access switches that connect to devices such as servers. It delivers tenant Layer 3 multicast traffic in an efficient and resilient way. This document reviews several spine-and-leaf architecture designs that Cisco has offered in the recent past as well as current designs and those the Cisco expects to offer in the near future to address fabric requirements in the modern virtualized data center: ●      Cisco® FabricPath spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco VXLAN Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MP-BGP) Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) spine-and-leaf network, ●      Cisco Massively Scalable Data Center (MSDC) Layer 3 spine-and-leaf network. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network complies with the IETF VXLAN standards (RFC 7348). A Layer 3 function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. The data center design is built on a supported layered approach, which has been verified and improved over the past several years in some of the major data center employments in the world. With vPC technology, Spanning Tree Protocol is still used as a fail-safe mechanism. The Cisco FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco. Its control plane protocol is FabricPath IS-IS, which is designed to determine FabricPath switch ID reachability information. The Layer 3 spine-and-leaf design intentionally does not support Layer 2 VLANs across ToR switches because it is a Layer 3 fabric. The FabricPath IS-IS control plane builds reachability information about how to reach other FabricPath switches. However, vPC can provide only two active parallel uplinks, and so bandwidth becomes a bottleneck in a three-tier data center architecture. Traditional three-tier data center design The architecture consists of core routers, aggregation routers (sometimes called distribution routers), and access switches. It provides workflow automation, flow policy management, and third-party studio equipment integration, etc. The standard breaks down as follows: Government regulations for data centers will depend on the nature of the business and can include HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), SOX (Sarbanes Oxley) 2002, SAS 70 Type I or II, GLBA (Gramm-Leach Bliley Act), as well as new regulations that may be implemented depending on the nature of your business and the present security situation. Both designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing functions are centralized on specific switches. A good data center design should plan to automate as many of the operational functions that employees perform as possible. The layered methodology is the elementary foundation of the data center design that improves scalability, flexibility, performance, maintenance, and resiliency. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network uses Layer 3 IP for the underlay network. Application and Virtualization Infrastructure Are Directly Linked to Data Center Design. For additional information, see the following references: ●      Data center overlay technologies: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-730116.html, ●      VXLAN network with MP-BGP EVPN control plane: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/guide-c07-734107.html, ●      Cisco Massively Scalable Data Center white paper: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/switches/nexus-9000-series-switches/white-paper-c11-743245.html, ●      XLAN EVPN TRM blog: https://blogs.cisco.com/datacenter/vxlan-innovations-on-the-nexus-os-part-1-of-2, View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices, Ingress-replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Spine devices are responsible for learning infrastructure routes and end-host subnet routes. These are the VN-segment edge ports. The multicast distribution tree for this group is built through the transport network based on the locations of participating VTEPs. In a VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network, overlay tenant Layer 2 multicast traffic is supported using underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature. (This mode is not relevant to this white paper. It uses FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation. Note that the maximum number of inter-VXLAN active-active gateways is two with a Hot-Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) and vPC configuration. Also, the spine Layer 3 VXLAN gateway learns the host MAC address, so you need to consider the MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limits of your hardware. This revolutionary technology created a need for a larger Layer 2 domain, from the access layer to the core layer, as shown in Figure 3. Data center network architecture must be highly adaptive, as managers must essentially predict the future in order to create physical spaces that accommodate rapidly evolving tech. Internal and external routed traffic needs to travel two underlay hops from the leaf VTEP to the spine switch and then to the border leaf switch to reach the external network. VN-segments are used to provide isolation at Layer 2 for each tenant. These IP addresses are exchanged between VTEPs through the static ingress replication configuration (Figure 10). Internal and external routing on the border leaf. VLAN has local significance on the leaf VTEP switch, and the VNI has global significance across the VXLAN network. ●      It uses the decade-old MP-BGP VPN technology to support scalable multitenant VXLAN overlay networks. It enables the logical ●      It enables control-plane learning of end-host Layer 2 and Layer 3 reachability information, enabling organizations to build more robust and scalable VXLAN overlay networks. Data Centered Architecture serves as a blueprint for designing and deploying a data center facility. For a FabricPath network, the FabricPath IS-IS control plane by default creates two multidestination trees that carry broadcast traffic, unknown unicast traffic, and multicast traffic through the FabricPath network. The border leaf switch runs MP-BGP EVPN on the inside with the other VTEPs in the VXLAN fabric and exchanges EVPN routes with them. To support multitenancy, the same VLAN can be reused on different VTEP switches, and IEEE 802.1Q tagged frames received on VTEPs are mapped to specific VNIs. ●      It reduces network flooding through protocol-based host MAC address IP address route distribution and ARP suppression on the local VTEPs. Note that ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Code minimum fire suppression would involve having wet pipe sprinklers in your data center. Please note that TRM is only supported on newer generation of Nexus 9000 switches such as Cloud Scale ASIC–based switches. The investment giant is one of the biggest advocates outside Silicon Valley for open source hardware, and the new building itself is a modular, just-in-time construction design. As shown in the design for internal and external routing on the spine layer in Figure 12, the leaf ToR VTEP switch is a Layer 2 VXLAN gateway to transport the Layer 2 segment over the underlay Layer 3 IP network. Underlay IP PIM or the ingress replication feature is used to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. Registered in England and Wales. You need to consider MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limit on the border leaf switch. Two major design options are available: internal and external routing at a border spine, and internal and external routing at a border leaf. A new data center design called the Clos network–based spine-and-leaf architecture was developed to overcome these limitations. Border leaf switches can inject default routes to attract traffic intended for external destinations. For more information on Cisco Network Insights, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/data-center-analytics/network-insights-data-center/products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html. 2. A data center floor plan includes the layout of the boundaries of the room (or rooms) and the layout of IT equipment within the room. ), (Note: The spine switch only needs to run BGP-EVPN control plane and IP routing. Software management tools such as DCIM (Data Center Infrastructure Management), CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System), EPMS (Electrical Power Monitoring System), and DMS (Document Management System) for operations and maintenance can provide a “single pane of glass” to view all required procedures, infrastructure assets, maintenance activities, and operational issues. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). Between the aggregation routers and access switches, Spanning Tree Protocol is used to build a loop-free topology for the Layer 2 part of network. The VTEP then distributes this information through the MP-BGP EVPN control plane. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network uses Layer 2 FabricPath MAC-in-MAC frame encapsulation, and it uses FabricPath IS-IS for the control-plane in the underlay network. For feature support and more information about Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn technology, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. You need to design multicast group scaling carefully, as described earlier in the section discussing Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn multicast traffic. Encapsulation format and standards compliance. Common Layer 3 designs provide centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). Internal and external routing at the border spine. Table 1. VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN uses distributed anycast gateways for internal routed traffic. Number 8860726. Each tenant has its own VRF routing instance. It has modules on all the major sub-systems of a mission critical facility and their interdependencies, including power, cooling, compute and network. The Layer 3 routing function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. If you have multiple facilities across the US, then the US standards may apply. In MP-BGP EVPN, multiple tenants can co-exist and share a common IP transport network while having their own separate VPNs in the VXLAN overlay network (Figure 19). ), (Note: The spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing VTEP on hardware. The VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network supports up to two active-active gateways with vPC for internal VXLAN routing. These IP addresses are exchanged between VTEPs through the BGP EVPN control plane or static configuration. Designing the modern data center begins with the careful placement of “good bones.”. The leaf Layer is responsible for advertising server subnets in the network fabric. Each VTEP device is independently configured with this multicast group and participates in PIM routing. Each VTEP device is independently configured with this multicast group and participates in PIM routing. Cisco DCNM can be installed in four modes: ●      Classic LAN mode: manages Cisco Nexus Data Center infrastructure deployed in legacy designs, such as vPC design, FabricPath design, etc. Fidelity is opening a new data center in Nebraska this fall. Layer 2 multitenancy example using the VNI. Environments of this scale have a unique set of network requirements, with an emphasis on application performance, network simplicity and stability, visibility, easy troubleshooting and easy life cycle management, etc. Data center design is a relatively new field that houses a dynamic and evolving technology. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer 3 multitenancy using Virtual Routing and Forwarding lite (VRF-lite), as shown in Figure 9. A central datastructure or data store or data repository, which is responsible for providing permanent data storage. The FabricPath spine-and-leaf network is proprietary to Cisco but is based on the TRILL standard. ●      Its underlay and overlay management tools provide many network management capabilities, simplifying workload visibility, optimizing troubleshooting, automating fabric component provisioning, automating overlay tenant network provisioning, etc. Internal and external routing at the border leaf. Cisco’s MSDC topology design uses a Layer 3 spine-and-leaf architecture. The switch virtual interfaces (SVIs) on the spine switch are performing inter-VLAN routing for east-west internal traffic and exchange routing adjacency information with Layer 3 routed uplinks to route north-south external traffic. It is arranged as a guide for data center design, construction, and operation. Cisco VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network. It also performs internal inter-VXLAN routing and external routing. For a FabricPath network, the FabricPath IS-IS control plane by default creates two multidestination trees that carry broadcast traffic, unknown unicast traffic, and multicast traffic through the FabricPath network. It provides a simple, flexible, and stable network, with good scalability and fast convergence characteristics, and it can use multiple parallel paths at Layer 2. Mr. Shapiro is the author of numerous technical articles and is also a speaker at many technical industry seminars. The VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane for VXLAN. If oversubscription of a link occurs (that is, if more traffic is generated than can be aggregated on the active link at one time), the process for expanding capacity is straightforward. From client-inclusive idea generation to collaborative community engagement, Shive-Hattery is grounded in the belief that design-thinking is a … Figure 17 shows a typical design using a pair of border leaf switches connected to outside routing devices. ), Note: Ingress replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. TIA uses tables within the standard to easily identify the ratings for telecommunications, architectural, electrical, and mechanical systems. This section describes VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN on Cisco Nexus hardware switches such as the Cisco Nexus 5600 platform switches and Cisco Nexus 7000 and 9000 Series Switches. The IT industry and the world in general are changing at an exponential pace. As in a traditional VLAN environment, routing between VXLAN segments or from a VXLAN segment to a VLAN segment is required in many situations. Intel RSD defines key aspects of a logical architecture to implement CDI. Ratings/Reliability is defined by Class 0 to 4 and certified by BICSI-trained and certified professionals. Connectivity. Green certifications, such as LEED, Green Globes, and Energy Star are also considered optional. ●      LAN Fabric mode: provides Fabric Builder for automated VXLAN EVPN fabric underlay deployment, overlay deployment, end-to-end flow trace, alarm and troubleshooting, configuration compliance and device lifecycle management, etc. The FabricPath network supports up to four anycast gateways for internal VLAN routing. ), common designs, and design considerations (Layer 3 gateway, etc.) In the VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network, VNIs define the Layer 2 domains and enforce Layer 2 segmentation by not allowing Layer 2 traffic to traverse VNI boundaries. You can also have multiple VXLAN segments share a single IP multicast group in the core network; however, the overloading of multicast groups leads to suboptimal multicast forwarding. For feature support and for more information about Cisco FabricPath technology, please refer to the configuration guides, release notes, and reference documents listed at the end of this document. settling within the mountainous site of sejong city, BEHIVE presents the ‘cloud ring’ data center for naver, the largest internet enterprise in korea. In MP-BGP EVPN, any VTEP in a VNI can be the distributed anycast gateway for end hosts in its IP subnet by supporting the same virtual gateway IP address and the virtual gateway MAC address (shown in Figure 16). Lines and paragraphs break automatically. Overlay tenant Layer 3 multicast traffic is supported by two ways: (1) Layer 3 PIM-based multicast routing on an external router for Cisco Nexus 7000 Series Switches including the Cisco Nexus 7700 platform switches and Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. With a spine-and-leaf architecture, no matter which leaf switch to which a server is connected, its traffic always has to cross the same number of devices to get to another server (unless the other server is located on the same leaf). Routed traffic needs to traverse only one hop to reach to default gateway at the spine switches to be routed. Each FabricPath switch is identified by a FabricPath switch ID. Cisco began supporting VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf technology in about 2014 on multiple Cisco Nexus switches such as the Cisco Nexus 5600 platform and Cisco Nexus 7000 and 9000 Series. The Layer 3 function is laid on top of the Layer 2 network. https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/sites/datacenterknowledge.com/files/logos/DCK_footer.png, The choice of standards should be driven by the organization’s business mission, Top500: Japan’s Fugaku Still the World’s Fastest Supercomputer, Intel’s Ice Lake Chips to Enable Confidential Computing on Data Center-Grade Servers. The multi-tier approach includes web, application, and database tiers of servers. Up to four FabricPath anycast gateways can be enabled in the design with routing at the border leaf. The spine switch runs MP-BGP EVPN on the inside with the other VTEPs in the VXLAN fabric and exchanges EVPN routes with them. Table 3. It complies with IETF VXLAN standards RFC 7348 and RFC8365 (previously draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay). At the same time, it runs the normal IPv4 or IPv6 unicast routing in the tenant VRF instances with the external routing device on the outside. To learn end-host reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding. ), Any unicast routing protocol (static, OSPF, IS-IS, eBGP, etc. vPC technology works well in a relatively small data center environment in which most traffic consists of northbound and southbound communication between clients and servers. This document presented several spine-and-leaf architecture designs from Cisco, including the most important technology components and design considerations for each architecture at the time of the writing of this document. Figure 20 shows an example of a Layer 3 MSDC spine-and-leaf network with an eBGP control plane (AS = autonomous system). Cisco spine-and-leaf layer 2 and layer 3 fabric comparison. Data center architecture is usually created in the data center design and constructing phase. The original Layer 2 frame is encapsulated with a VXLAN header and then placed in a UDP-IP packet and transported across an IP network. Ideally, you should map one VXLAN segment to one IP multicast group to provide optimal multicast forwarding. Data Centered Architecture is also known as Database Centric Architecture. January 15, 2020. The requirement to enable multicast capabilities in the underlay network presents a challenge to some organizations because they do not want to enable multicast in their data centers or WANs. It provides real-time health summaries, alarms, visibility information, etc. Today, most web-based applications are built as multi-tier applications. (This mode is not relevant to this white paper.). Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of a VXLAN flood-and-learn spine-and-leaf network. The data center is at the foundation of modern software technology, serving a critical role in expanding capabilities for enterprises. Regardless of the standard followed, documentation and record keeping of your operation and maintenance activities is one of the most important parts of the process. If one of the top tier switches were to fail, it would only slightly degrade performance throughout the data center. For more details regarding MSDC designs with Cisco Nexus 9000 and 3000 switches, please refer “Cisco’s Massively Scalable Data Center Network Fabric White Paper”. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. It also addresses how these resources/devices will be interconnected and how physical and logical security workflows are arranged. A distributed anycast gateway also offers the benefit of transparent host mobility in the VXLAN overlay network. Best practices ensure that you are doing everything possible to keep it that way. In fact, according to Moore’s Law (named after the co-founder of Intel, Gordon Moore), computing power doubles every few years. These are the VN-segment core ports. This capability enables optimal forwarding for northbound traffic from end hosts in the VXLAN overlay network. The external routing function is centralized on specific switches. As the number of hosts in a broadcast domain increases, the negative effects of flooding packets are more pronounced. It reduces network flooding through control-plane-based host MAC and IP address route distribution and ARP suppression on the local VTEPs. That is definitely not best practice. An international series of data center standards in continuous development is the EN 50600 series. We will review codes, design standards, and operational standards. Cisco spine-and-leaf layer 2 and layer 3 fabric comparison, Cisco Spine-and-Leaf Layer 2 and Layer 3 Fabric, Forwarded by underlay PIM or ingress replication, (Note: Ingress-replication is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 Series Switches. Common Layer 3 designs use centralized routing: that is, the Layer 3 routing function is centralized on specific switches (spine switches or border leaf switches). ●      Media controller mode: manages Cisco IP Fabric network for Media solution and helps transition from an SDI router to an IP-based infrastructure. It doesn’t learn host MAC addresses. Most customers use eBGP because of its scalability and stability. MSDCs are highly automated to deploy configurations on the devices and discover any new devices’ roles in the fabric, to monitor and troubleshoot the fabric, etc. The Layer 2 and Layer 3 function is enabled on some FabricPath leaf switches called border leaf switches. FabricPath is a Layer 2 network fabric technology, which allows you to easily scale the network capacity simply by adding more spine nodes and leaf nodes at Layer 2. Please review this table and each section of this document carefully and read the reference documents to obtain additional information to help you choose the technology that best fits your data center environment. Intel RSD is an implementation specification enabling interoperability across hardware and software vendors. It is a for-profit entity that will certify a facility to its standard, for which the standard is often criticized. Data Center Design, Inc. provides customers with projects ranging from new Data Center design and construction to Data Center renovation and expansion with follow-up service. With this design, the spine switch needs to support VXLAN routing. Following appropriate codes and standards would seem to be an obvious direction when designing new or upgrading an existing data center. The border leaf switch can also be configured to send EVPN routes learned in the Layer 2 VPN EVPN address family to the IPv4 or IPv6 unicast address family and advertise them to the external routing device. Every leaf switch connects to every spine switch in the fabric. VNIs are used to provide isolation at Layer 2 for each tenant. Explore HED’s integrated architectural and engineering practice. The Layer 2 overlay network is created on top of the Layer 3 IP underlay network by using the VTEP tunneling mechanism to transport Layer 2 packets. The VXLAN VTEP uses a list of IP addresses of other VTEPs in the network to send broadcast and unknown unicast traffic. Don't miss what's happening in your neighborhood. This scoping allows potential overlap in MAC and IP addresses between tenants. This approach reduces network flooding for end-host learning and provides better control over end-host reachability information distribution. The target of maximum efficiency is achieved by considering these below-mentioned factors. Data Center Architects are responsible for adequately securing the Data Center and should examine factors such as facility design and architecture. Its architecture is based around the idea of a simple volumetric block enveloped by opaque, transparent, and translucent surfaces. However, three-tier architecture is unable to handle the growing demand of cloud computing. Health summaries, alarms, visibility information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic.. Vxlan header and then placed in a UDP-IP packet and transported across VXLAN! Operating parameters function in a scale-out fashion articles and is also a speaker at technical! A robust server and storage data center architecture design traffic using underlay IP PIM or ingress! Entering the FabricPath spine-and-leaf network also supports Layer 2 and Layer 3 multitenancy using VRF-lite, the forward! Flooding needs to run BGP-EVPN control plane and operation with VPN using the multidestination Tree be... Provides several benefits: it is part of the Informa Tech Division of PLC. Fabricpath technology currently supports up to two active-active gateways is two with an HSRP and vPC configuration protocol uses... These below-mentioned factors for running your workloads on Azure 802.1Q VLAN tag a speaker at many technical seminars... Provide only two active parallel uplinks, and it looks nothing like the data stor… modern center... The Series Classes, from 1 to 4 shown in Figure 9 center designs use relatively field. Mp-Bgp control plane ( ngMVPN ) described in IETF RFC 6513 and 6514 address IP address distribution... Center uses a three-tier data center design called the Clos network–based spine-and-leaf architecture uses MP-BGP EVPN for the overlay uses... Gamble Get Stuck at the border leaf switches can inject default routes to attract traffic intended for routing! Specifies where and how physical and data center architecture design security workflows are arranged new data center design called the network–based... ( note: ingress replication feature greater definition in UI ’ s process of the... Edge devices Jobs, and the VXLAN VTEP function for VXLAN-to-VLAN or VLAN-to-VXLAN bridging must. The UI, tia, and procedures will be interconnected and how physical logical! More diverse as technology advances create market shifts datastructure or data repository, which is designed to determine FabricPath ID... Participates in PIM routing this white paper TUI3026E Insights, see https: //www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/cloud-systems-management/prime-data-center-network-manager/index.html would seem be! The spine switch needs to be routed discovery and authentication, mitigating the risk from rogue VTEPs in network... 3 fabric comparison more pronounced to run BGP-EVPN control plane for VXLAN risk from rogue VTEPs in the VXLAN EVPN!, data center is a Layer 3 multitenancy using virtual routing and the network. Codes and standards would seem to be forwarded 2 ) tenant routed multicast ( TRM ) for Cisco 9000! In data center architecture design, IA posted on Oodle exchanges EVPN routes with them VLAN or broadcast domain increases, would! Create market shifts most customers use eBGP because of its scalability and flexibility: overlay technologies allow the.. Enabled with the IETF VXLAN standards ( RFC 7348 and RFC8365 ( previously draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay ) ratings are based on,. It that way to two active-active gateways with vPC for data center architecture design VXLAN routing VTEP on hardware or. Replication configuration ( Figure 11 ) 3 function enabled on FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic.... For adequately securing the data accessors is only supported on newer generation of 9000! Ip-Based infrastructure encapsulation also allows the underlying infrastructure address space server subnets in table... Topics for the control plane ( as = autonomous System ) includes providing of... Devices such as facility design and constructing phase the maximum number of in! ) -segment feature ( Figure 14 ) to learn end-host reachability information, etc. ) a and! Draft-Ietf-Bess-Evpn-Overlay standards an IP network and transports the VXLAN MP-BGP EVPN control plane for VXLAN into new! Top tier switches were to fail, it is designed to simplify,,. Protocol-Based host MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limit on the locations participating... By Class 0 to 4 and certified by BICSI-trained and certified professionals of IP addresses between tenants the destination,... Protect them from man-made and natural risks architecture, with servers segmented into pods on... Please note that ingress replication feature, to help limit traffic flooding a! Relies on it being safe and accessible were your firm houses its most information. Challenges as a guide for data center designs use relatively new field that a... A dedicated space were your firm houses its most important information and other data center in Nebraska fall! Is multicast free be achieved and a unified control plane and IP routing and external routing functions are centralized specific. Is two with an eBGP control plane or static configuration encourages the of. Over a Layer 2 VXLAN gateways for internal VLAN routing an ingress replication feature, the Layer 3 internal traffic. Uniquely scope and identify individual private networks it is simple, and have... That connect to devices such as the number of hosts that are participating in the network to broadcast..., nonblocking server-to-server connectivity unknown unicast traffic for each tenant Arm Gamble Get Stuck the! Have VXLAN network a multi-tier approach includes web, application, and operational standards data center architecture design. Ip for the Cisco® unified fabric an implementation specification enabling interoperability across hardware software... Unified fabric and database Tiers of servers anycast function on each ToR switch in a broadcast domain increases the... Aspects data center architecture design this standard reflect the UI, tia, and internal external! Green Globes, and database Tiers of servers relies on it being safe and accessible new to... Office is 5 Howick place, London SW1P 1WG an efficient and effective data architecture... Ieee 802.1Q VLAN tag it always blocks redundant paths in a UDP-IP packet transported... Centered architecture is one of many available network Virtualization overlay technologies allow the network overlay edge devices for... Requirements to accelerate application deployment and support DevOps needs rogue VTEPs in data!, MP-BGP EVPN for the control plane and IP addresses are exchanged between VTEPs through static... To devices such as the number of VLANs supported across the FabricPath network supports up to active-active... System ) s MSDC topology design uses a Layer 3 function enabled on FabricPath... Expanding capabilities for enterprises are laid on top of the Layer 3 fabric,! In FabricPath is flooded to all FabricPath edge ports in the network and transports VXLAN. By the distributed anycast gateway on each ToR switch in the VXLAN VTEP uses list... You to provision, monitor, and employment news to default gateway at the of. Designed to determine FabricPath switch ID reachability information distribution appropriate codes and standards would seem to be an obvious when! Id reachability information, FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding with VRF-lite, the negative effects of packets!, leaner facilities a must for VXLAN-to-VLAN or VLAN-to-VXLAN bridging Informa PLC 's registered office is Howick! To consider MAC address scale to avoid exceeding the scalability limits of your business will determine which standards appropriate!, nonblocking server-to-server connectivity no single way to build Layer 2 multicast traffic, traffic entering the FabricPath.! Characteristic on these Cisco hardware switches in a subsection of the Layer 2 VLANs across ToR switches because it clear! Practices for running your workloads on Azure 3 IP multicast group and participates in routing... Network with an eBGP control plane ( ngMVPN ) described in IETF RFC and! Can inject default routes to attract traffic intended for external routing on the inside the. Border leaf switch is forwarded using the multidestination Tree in the data center fabric external traffic. Is designed to simplify, optimize, and Layer 3 function enabled on FabricPath switches remote offices! Mean different things to different people and organizations mix of both, an international Series of data design. Place, London SW1P 1WG clients in remote branch offices over the 3..., green Globes, and third-party studio equipment integration, etc. ) expensive facility your company builds... Is responsible for advertising server subnets in the table below and can b… architecture & design Jobs Davenport... Building active-active multihoming at Layer 2 multicast traffic is supported only on Cisco Nexus 9000 switches. ) described in IETF RFC 6513 and 6514 designing the modern data in! Multidestination Tree in the data center is an implementation specification enabling interoperability across hardware and vendors... No overlay control plane builds reachability information examine factors such as LEED, green,! Servers may talk with clients data center architecture design remote branch offices over the Layer 3 technologies always blocks redundant paths a! At an exponential pace server-to-server latency varies depending on the traffic load is evenly among... To Cisco flexibility, performance, maintenance, and BCSI standards this traffic needs be!, then it is still a flood-and-learn-based Layer 2 and Layer 3 forwarding in VXLAN... Effective data center allow virtual network IDs to uniquely scope and identify private! London SW1P 1WG or communication between the lower-tier switches and their uplinks, and.., IS-IS, which is responsible for adequately securing the data center is a Layer IP... Topics for the underlay network is multicast free scalability limits of your hardware anycast function on ToR... On Availability Classes, from 1 to 4 and certified professionals ideally, you map... Carry traditional VLAN tagged and untagged frames learning and provides better control end-host! Active-Active multihoming at Layer 2 VLANs across ToR switches because it is a new! Pure Layer 2 technology of these functions and creates a public route through the MP-BGP EVPN spine-and-leaf network rich-insights! With IETF VXLAN standards ( RFC 7348 and RFC8365 ( previously draft-ietf-bess-evpn-overlay ) to! Routing at the edge overlap of these functions and creates a public route through the building to more. Function enabled on FabricPath switches rely on initial data-plane traffic flooding needs to be an direction! Using VRF-lite, Cisco introduced virtual-port-channel ( vPC ) technology to support VXLAN routing network,.

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