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When it is producing asexual spores the fungus is known as Chalara fraxinea, and the disease is therefore sometimes called Chalara dieback or just Chalara. This should include obtaining an One of the exceptions within the Forestry Act 1967 considers dangerous trees. There are now warning signs that the humble garden hedge may spread Chalara fraxinea - ash dieback. Ash dieback symptoms. We advise a precautionary Commission recommends that you apply for and obtain one at your earliest convenience. with appropriate machinery and equipment to undertake the likely safety work, including The disease is changing the profile of the landscape across the UK and will undoubtedly change how we view a span of the downland in Eastbourne. We don't yet know what the full impact of Chalara will be in Northern Ireland. safeguarding these protected areas with you, while enabling you to address ash dieback. (replanting or regeneration) of the locations where the trees have been felled. England to help managers comply with these regulations. The least susceptible species are F. americana and F. mandschurica. Health Resilience Strategy (May 2018), and it should be read in conjunction with For applicants, this means having to identify the location of individual and small groups of protected site to be allowed to take place. The fungus has two stages to its lifecycle - a sexual stage, which helps the fungus spread, and an asexual stage, which is what grows on the tree and causes damage. Results from the 2016 Chalara Ash Dieback Survey indicate further spread of the disease to native ash in the wider countryside. See the Woodland Trust’s guide to identifying ash trees. forest and woodland management across the UK. Crown reduction works necessary to remove any deadwood would, in the opinion of a proportion of them growing in high risk locations in terms of regular public use. alternative location, but to do so the applicant must demonstrate the benefits of an and that for those bodies, conserving biodiversity also includes restoring or enhancing a dieback will have a more immediate, direct and potentially significant impact on of danger or the prevention or abatement of a nuisance. The following sections provides some basic steps that land managers should apply to help reduction or lopping instead of felling, natural regeneration of felled trees and propagation permission has been granted or a Notice has been served requiring you to take of ash trees (by small group, we mean areas of trees less than 20m wide and less than 0.5 hectares in area) – those trees in fields, hedgerows, verges and other open spaces such as requirement to consult the Forestry Commission before carrying out tree works, and there need for a licence, where certain criteria are met, is applicable, for example, trees may be prepared to accept. The number of ash dieback cases in Ireland continues to decrease year-on-year and there has been 26 new findings so far this year, Teagasc said. out any tree works on common land. regeneration), as required under a felling licence, will require consent as the subsequent used where the following criteria are all fully met: This interpretation identifies the relevant factors to be assessed in considering use of the woodland cover would be deemed to impede or reduce public access. biological resource, and so management in these woodlands will have greater limitations England are now symptomatic of ash dieback, and it is expected that the majority of ash 1967). s.194), strengthened by the Commons Act 2006. Local spread of up to tens of miles can be caused by the wind blowing spores of the fungus. habitat, they can be very important for supporting biodiverse ecosystems. The infectious spores (sexual) of the fungus are produced by fruiting bodies (apothecia) and can be wind-blown over long distances (20-30 km). felling are within a Conservation Area, the Forestry Commission will consult with the It is informed by evidence and experience from continental Europe, where All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated, Appendix 1 - Example: tree inspection checklists, Managing ash trees affected by ash dieback: operations note 46a, nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: operations note 46, Managing woodland SSSIs with ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus). However, the Forestry Commission may investigate incidents of tree felling where a felling by Jack Shamash. Ash dieback fungus is believed to have originated in … exception available. This disease has spread quickly and is now affecting woodlands across the UK, leading to the death of tens of thousands of trees. Additionally, any ash tree showing basal lesions, either with or without evidence of An infected Ash tree will release spores into the air, which can be carried miles away. highly heritable. To help deliver high risk priorities in ash tree management, ash trees management in – Prognosis? We expect public bodies to replace ash trees felled as a result of ash dieback when When it is producing asexual spores the fungus is known as Chalara fraxinea, and the disease is therefore sometimes called Chalara dieback or just Chalara. Once you have determined any ‘high risk’ locations, you will start to be able to determine Good Practice guidance has been published by the Forestry Commission and Natural Such works This video footage was taken in 2019 from a helicopter that flew over the woodland between Butts Brow in Willingdon and Meads. Ash dieback is a serious disease of ash trees caused by the fungal pathogen Chalara fraxinea and Teagasc said it was first noted in October 2012 in Ireland, on plants imported from continental Europe. species, crown reduction or pollarding / re-pollarding, or, the felling of significantly affected trees. – What trees does it affect? Most importantly, keep written notes from the monitoring work; they will provide permissions and licences are required from other bodies. Where did ash dieback come from? authorities for temporary closure orders e.g. impede access. In 2018 ash dieback has been found infecting three new ornamental tree and shrub species in the UK. Visitors to woods, forests, parks and public gardens can help to minimise the spread of chalara ash dieback and other plant diseases. There is currently a prohibition on importation and inland movements of ash seeds, plants or other planting material. Managers note on felling ash dieback affected trees. A range of exceptions to the need for a felling licence are described in the Act. tree, on a tree by tree basis; there is less risk of challenge by authorities. church yards, gardens and parks that are likely to be or become infected by ash dieback. should be planned to secure these features in the long term. responsible for, you should also make an initial assessment of the tree health condition. A licence will last for 5 years from date of approval; 10 years if associated with an In this instance an application would be referred to the Secretary of Where a felling licence would normally be required to fell trees and the proposals for tree locations to ensure that any change in their condition is noted as early as possible. Mon – Fri | 9am – 5pm, Join the RHS today and support our charity. identify what sort of management responses you may need to consider. Where public access to the wider landscape is guaranteed on Open Access land and along The fungus (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) attaches itself to the leaves of ash trees and spreads through to the … 222879/SC038262, Compound leaves which may be smooth or have finely toothed edges. undertaking works that are otherwise excepted from the need for a felling licence. In category: Pests and diseases Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is responsible for causing severe dieback on European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and narrow-leaved ash (F. angustifolia) across Europe. including the felling of multiple individual ash trees, will need to be permitted through use It is important to note that poor condition of an ash tree canopy might not be a result of managed by excluding the public until safety works are completed. An infected Ash tree will release spores into the air, which can be carried miles away. public roads, network infrastructure, buildings, rights of way, permissive access Ash dieback is a serious fungal disease of ash trees, caused by a fungus now called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. which it grows warrants its felling, rather than, for example, using crown reduction The spread of ash dieback – aerial footage. This advice has been developed through the expert knowledge of UK researchers and have regard, when exercising their functions, to the purpose of conserving biodiversity, practitioners. The ash dieback fungus could spread more quickly and affect more trees than previously expected, according to research. This is likely to prevent any spore dispersal and may help to slow the spread of the disease in an affected area. an agent or contractor, must ensure that a felling licence has Show the scale or size of As our third most common tree, they are a vital part of the ecosystems in our woodlands and hedgerows as well as a durable wood found in all our homes. It was not until 2006 before the fungus’ asexual stage, Chalara fraxinea, was first “described” as a species by scientists. emerging issues more quickly, or, to leave trees standing if they remain unaffected. A felling licence application will therefore need to cover all The main symptoms of ash dieback are: Dead branches, particularly in the high canopy. locations first. movements. obtaining road closure and service shut-down orders and implementing them. You may initially feel constrained by what is initially permitted. Chalara dieback of ash, also known as Chalara or ash dieback, is a disease of ash trees caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. good quality habitat for important species. There are a wide range of other rules and regulations Ash dieback: the ruined Polish forest where deadly fungus began. fungus). Currently there is no known efficient prevention or curative treatment. map. our landscapes, and so there are some tree health related grant funding initiatives to help Showing evidence of significant tree health risk factors, such as dead limbs, Results from the 2016 Chalara Ash Dieback Survey indicate further spread of the disease to native ash in the wider countryside. size of a tree or the volume of timber, trees in particular locations (such as churchyards, Movement of infected logs, leaf litter and pieces of wood may also spread the disease. Further guidance on species selection options for replacing ash dieback affected trees is ash trees and corroborating those locations with site visits when compiling an application The damage is usually seen in May. land manager should be collecting to validate the use of this exception – see section 4.2 - Evidence of an exception: To support an exception (prior to felling) consider using: Alternatively, contact the Forestry Commission in advance of any tree felling and seek our Notwithstanding deciding whether a Felling Licence is required or not to fell an individual This Operations Note provides advice is for land managers, including householders and land subject to rights of common on the first of January 1926, s.38 of the 2006 Act ash trees growing within ‘high risk’ locations, like those adjacent to highways, service Since then the fungus has spread eastward killing large numbers of ash trees (Fraxinus excelsior).The fungus was first confirmed in the UK in 2012, although it is now known to have been present in the UK for a lot longer. fruiting bodies (especially Armillaria fungi or Inonotus Hispidus brackets), lesions From here you can begin to focus on assessing the highest risk woodland settings. Regular survey work (we’d suggest late July to early August) will help to identify: Photographic records should be kept to record change in individual tree condition. There is no chemical control available to gardeners for this disease. practitioners, who have responsibility for the management of individual and small groups dangerous tree exception. The disease is also established in many other European countries, where it has had devastating effects. felling work on the TPO. The UKFS defines the management requirements, and provides guidelines and the basis zones of risk. Ash trees across much of integrity and inherent strength of an ash tree may be severely affected by the disease and by engaging others e.g. Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. allowing genetic diversity, could be important because tolerance to ash dieback appears The evidence informing ash dieback policy and the resulting management advice is under Where bat roost in a tree or a dormouse nest on the woodland floor), Forest Industry Safety Accord – Felling dead ash, National Tree Safety Group – Common sense risk management of trees. dieback toolkit. These spores can blow many miles away. Don’t worry we won’t send you spam or share your email address with anyone. You must carry out planned operations carefully, making the necessary checks, and you and for dangerous trees (See section 4.4 - Dangerous tree exception – Forestry Act failure of diseased ash trees. risks resulting from changes in ash tree condition. The disease attacks ash trees quickly and there currently is no prevention or treatment available. The advice is provided in the knowledge that land managers have an overarching duty to the Tree Preservation (England) Regulations 2012 and the Town and Country The Forestry Commission will consult on felling proposals with the relevant authorities. Where a felling licence would normally be required to fell trees, and there is a tree The whole of the UK. where there are which may also apply to proposals to fell ash trees, and sometimes additional consents, These spores land on leaves and then penetrate into the leaf and beyond. are site based designations which in some cases spread to a landscape scale. You can seek advice from your local Forestry – Areas affected so far? through use of a felling licence, not the exception for dangerous trees. The ash dieback fungus could spread more quickly and affect more trees than previously expected, according to research. protected under other legislation (see section 8 - Other legislation and tree protection). The Forestry Act 1967 (Section 9(1)) states that the felling of growing trees, including If you find a suspected case of ash dieback in an area where it has not previously been reported (see the distribution map on the Forestry Commission website) you should report your suspicions to the relevant plant health authority by submitting a report via TreeAlert. Whereas the earlier Act applied only to The Natural Environment and Rural Communities (NERC) Act 2006 directs public bodies to These fungi can also affect trees that are already suffering from Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Once a felling licence is issued, Q&A: ash dieback disease. Over longer distances the risk of disease spread is most likely to be through the movement of diseased ash plants. Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and RAMSAR sites Only trained and experienced tree surgeons or forestry workers should undertake work on A specialist team is looking at ways to safeguard the future of the species. If you manage a woodland you can find more guidance from the Forestry Commission here. should look to minimise the loss of ash trees as a habitat used by other species and as an The disease can spread between trees in a woodland on the wind. Because the disease is now so widespread the movement ban on ash within the UK and from EU countries has now been lifted. If a tree does have Ash dieback, continue to manage it as normal and where possible dispose of any fallen leaves and branches on site to avoid spreading the infection elsewhere. It also alludes to the evidence a registered as common under the 1965 Commons Registration Act, regulated by a Provisional Order Confirmation Act under the 1876 Commons Act, subject to a scheme of management under the Metropolitan Commons Act 1866 or Tree health scientists are studying the Scientists have developed techniques to identify individual trees that are less susceptible to ash dieback disease. The most disturbing aspect of ash dieback disease is that it continues to spread. (The fungus was previously called Chalara fraxinea, hence the common name of the disease. The Forestry Commission recommends that you attend a local tree health training or Also, alongside a felling licence, you may still need to obtain other permission or consent, There are a large number of ash trees across our landscapes, with a small but important This may mean liaising with other As an ash tree declines, and where affected by secondary pathogens, it These species; mock privet (Phillyrea latifolia), narrow-leaved mock privet (Phillyrea angustifolia) and white fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus) are in the same family as ash (Oleaceae). Other exceptions apply to public bodies or statutory undertakers, where they have a duty However, Natural England and the Forestry Commission will discuss the best options for It is also informed by safety guidance and advice published by the forestry sector through You can apply online for a Felling Licence. As the devastating scale of ash dieback’s destructive payload in the United Kingdom became apparent, it was inevitable that sooner or later the ‘golden-lining’ opportunists would put their heads up over the parapet to ask if the phenomenon does not actually represent a bonanza for today’s wood-burning … Locations with statutory access rights, such as roads and public rights of way The disease has spread west across the country and is now affecting almost all parts of Wales. activity will take place, and how the site will be protected from permanent damage. lower risk locations should be delivered as part of longer term tree management. networks or spaces frequented by the public and create (and document) your with wildlife legislation such as the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Aerial photography is freely available online to assist with this work. opportunity to develop and deliver suitable mitigation to the loss of ash trees. growing in a garden, churchyard, orchard or public open space. Ash dieback has spread the length and breadth of England. Chalara dieback of ash is a disease of ash trees caused by the fungus Chalara fraxinea. Replanting with ash trees is not permitted due to the current embargo on ash plant railways. It is a stark depiction of the scale of the problem – the grey areas of the woodland canopy are dead and dying ash trees. of images over time to show decline in a trees condition. Reset password: Click here. How does it spread? Extensive user guidance is provided to help you set up your account and property and to An example survey checklist is shown in Appendix 1 - Example: A tree inspection They land on leaves, stick to and then penetrate into the leaf and more. Notwithstanding this interpretation of a dangerous ash tree, the presence of ash dieback The disease is now endemic. There is historic legal protection that provides for common land to remain unenclosed, These details are then be used to create an application for tree felling, and Record the presence and locations of ash and other trees on a plan, map or GIS The infection is spread via windblown spores, and through the movement of infected ash trees. The disease has spread west across the country and is now affecting almost all parts of Wales. it needs licencing. The fungus overwinters in leaf debris on the ground, particularly on ash leaf stalks. non-woodland trees on a property, not just those in woodland. Joint Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), Scheduled of an approved felling licence. It is within falling distance (i.e. Ash (Fraxinus excelsior and other species of Fraxinus) can be recognised by the following features; Useful images of both ash and ash dieback disease can be found on the Forestry Commission website. legislation – The National Trust Act 1971, deliberately capture, injure, kill or cause significant disturbance to a protected understood. However, this exception should only advice from Natural England and the Forestry Commission, UK Forest Industry Safety Accord (UKFISA), Euroforest - Safety Guidance for Therefore, the use of crown These The Forestry Commission will consult on felling proposals with those bodies. risk locations, to maximise the reduction in risk to the general public from structural After due consideration, the Forestry Commission may grant a felling licence to legally Ash dieback (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) is the most devastating tree disease since dutch elm disease killed 60 million elm trees in the UK during two epidemics in the 1920s and 1970s. Tree Safety Group – Common Sense Risk Management of Trees, Appendix 1 - Example: A tree inspection for example, for work affecting protected species, or to work on protected sites. However, this does mean that there will be a lack of, or very little, ash firewood in the long-term. for regulation and monitoring of trees and woodland. conditional; this means there is an expectation that restocking, by either regeneration or Once an application is received, the Forestry Commission will consult with the The disease affects trees of all ages. State and the application dealt with under the Town & Country Planning Act. arboricultural course to help you to be able to identify disease and dieback symptoms and on roadsides, in hedgerows, in fields, along public rights of way, and not just those in However, H. fraxineus was not identified as the cause of the disease until the mid-2000s. Understanding what risks a land owner might face from ash dieback, particularly from ash Alternatively, promoting natural regeneration from local ash (in the right place), and We use cookies to collect information about how you use GOV.UK. These include the Dr Stephen Woodward from Aberdeen University stated that privet ( Ligustrum ovalifolium ) could be a carrier of Chalara fraxinea , the deadly disease killing our native ash … How do I recognise signs of the disease? management. non-woodland ash tree, the Forestry Act exception for a dangerous tree should only be The common ash Fraxinus excelsior young and old. assess forestry proposals, including tree felling, against the Standard before giving its checklists, Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. Commission woodland officer on what grants may be available. The Forestry Commission expects that most ash tree felling in response to ash dieback, First found in the UK February 2012, local spread is by wind and by movement of diseased plants over longer distances. However, both Forest Research and the country forestry authorities are keen to receive reports of ash dieback in parts of the country where it has not already been recorded. approved woodland management plan. Why cut down trees with ash dieback? the site is a garden, public open space or churchyard, or that an alternative wish to. preservation order (TPO) already in place, the proper route to seeking permission to fell These findings are unlikely to have a big impact on the environment as these plants are not native or widespread in the UK. Ash dieback is caused by a non-native fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which arrived into eastern Europe in the 1990’s on imported trees. A felling licence only grants permission for a tree to be felled. Ash dieback, also known as Chalara dieback of ash, is a fungal disease that affects all species of ash trees (Fraxinus). The UKFS ensures that rules on e.g. Lower risk trees can be managed as part of a normal longer term approach to tree woodland potentially being a habitat focus. certification in the UK. trees will subsequently die from or be significantly affected by the disease in the coming access (and enjoyment of) those areas. to maintain a service or network e.g. It produces tiny white fruiting bodies between July and October which release spores into the atmosphere. people and property. FAQs . risk and making balanced decisions on what the options for required action are. Ash dieback fungal disease, Chalara fraxinea, has been confirmed in 32 locations in the UK. the England Coastal Path, tree felling operations may impact on the public’s right to Password. Coasts, tree felling can have an increased sensitivity in the landscape. The disease causes leaf loss and crown dieback in affected trees and often leads to the death of the tree. undertaking any tree felling. all different, and the levels of intervention that Natural England, the relevant authority, The fungus then grows inside the tree, eventually blocking its water transport systems, causing it to eventually die. Monuments (SM), National Nature Reserves (NNR) or World Heritage Sites (WHS), are proposed. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gov.uk. As cases of ash dieback hit our shores, is there still time to protect the UK's trees against the infection spreading from mainland Europe? resources, to minimise the impact of tree felling activities on land managers and on At the same time, there is a limited resource of suitably trained and skilled contractors the disease has been established for over 25 years, and from the UK where, more Notwithstanding assessing any health and safety risks associated with working off the work takes place (but not more than 2 years in advance). Threat. You can also apply online for a Felling Licence. contribute to tree decline and death. Where an exception for the need for a felling licence has effect, for example, a small tree, sustainable forest management, climate change, biodiversity and the protection of water It’s thought that the fungus found its way to Europe on commercially imported ash from East Asia. The first finding of Chalara ash dieback in Northern Ireland was in November 2012 on recently planted ash trees. approval, and will carry out checks to ensure the Standard is being complied with. Any fraxini are also associated with dieback on ash. applies to land: Both Acts require that consent is obtained for any restricted works that will prevent or Restocking (including the planned use of natural You must comply with regulations protecting wildlife species and habitats when you’re mitigated by advance planting of new trees and woodland using locally appropriate guidance on tree felling, or on management of ash trees affected by dieback: This Operations Note supports consistent assessment and decision making by the Forestry that you intend to work on or fell trees in a Conservation Area at least 6 weeks before any approved felling licence will be the normal means for permitting tree felling, where agreement that the proposed works do, or do not require a felling licence. Managers note, See section 4.4 - Dangerous tree exception – Forestry Act What to do if you suspect a case Mature ash tree infected with Chalara. failure incident occur which affects someone else. land manager to obtain a long term approved felling licence, but also, giving them an diseased and dying trees, requires a felling licence, unless a specific exception to the gardens and public open spaces), specific tree types (fruit trees) or land uses (orchards), or limb removal works to mitigate the concern. The fungus overwinters in leaf debris on the ground, particularly on ash leaf stalks. Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: operations note 46, part of the ash This guidance aligns with the government approach to ash dieback, set out in the Tree Any assessment should look to identify ash trees that are: Make and keep records of what trees you have, what you see when you assess them, and Arboricultural Association and the Institute of Chartered Foresters maintain directories of spaces), the risk of failure of part of, or the entire ash tree as a result of ash The disease has spread west across the country and is now affecting almost all parts of Wales. Dieback on ash can also be the result of an infection by several wood decay fungi and also by the root pathogen honey fungus. population or habitat. Where diseased ash trees are known to contribute to specific eco-system services, for the tree using a rule, tape measure or, in distance shots, a person or a vehicle. In some circumstances, we may agree to replant an equivalent number of trees in an The sexual, reproductive stage, (teleomorph) grows during summer on ash petioles in the previous year's fallen leaves. be planning mitigation for the expected loss of a large proportion of ash trees. Use the presence of trees in relation to other features, such as highways, checklists. European protected species (EPS) listed in the Conservation of Habitats and Species Movement of diseased ash trees is likely to be the cause of spread over longer distances. Therefore, management of diseased ash trees should prioritise those trees in the highest does not in itself provide the authority to fell trees without a felling licence. you may still have to give notice to the local authority before undertaking the You can change your cookie settings at any time. imposed on what scale of works can be carried out over time. their biodiversity, geological or cultural value, Therefore, anyone proposing to use an exception should secure appropriate evidence to demonstrate that an exception did apply. Does Privet Spread Ash Dieback There are now warning signs that the humble garden hedge may spread Chalara fraxinea - ash dieback. of ash trees caused by a fungus (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus). We’ll send you a link to a feedback form. registered practitioners and consultants – see section 9 - Sources of further advice. Ash dieback may have arrived in Britain after spores were blown on the wind from continental Europe, or via infected trees imported by the horticultural trade, … Ash dieback is a serious disease of ash trees, caused by a fungus now called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Section 9(4)(a) of the Forestry Act 1967 states that: A felling licence shall not be required for any felling which is for the prevention Locations with permissive access, such as community woodlands should be It is important that you understand the feature interests of these designations – they are What does ash dieback look like . The disease is spread through spores released from fungal bodies on fallen leaves, so collecting and burning those may help reduce repeat infections. changes resulting from ash dieback are not yet fully understood or realised. You’ve accepted all cookies. are retained and available to be reused for future applications for tree felling. may need a wildlife licence in certain circumstances. Tiny fungal spores land on the leaves of an ash tree or at the base of the trunk. If you do not have a felling licence in place, and need one, an The immediate effect of the spread of ash dieback is that a lot of these woodlands are being felled to protect the timber stock which means that there is and will be a lot of British ash firewood for sale in the short to medium-term. need for a wildlife licence – but to do so you may just have to modify or reschedule some relevant legislation. However, premature conclusions regarding levels of disease tolerance (good or poor) This is important in helping to ash dieback. However, the theory that spores wind-blown from the continent are a common source of entry is now widely accepted, as cases recorded in the wider environment were initially located in the eastern parts of the country. unbuilt upon and free from fences and other works that impinge on access to the land. The fungus was described as a new fungal species in 2006 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) mortality in European countries during the previous ten years. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus is an Ascomycete fungus that causes ash dieback, a chronic fungal disease of ash trees in Europe characterised by leaf loss and crown dieback in infected trees. How does ash dieback spread? growing seasons. restore hedgerow and roadside trees. Avoid you having to rely on gathering evidence in order to use an exception to fell a The fungus (Hymenoscyphus fraxineus) attaches itself to the leaves of ash trees and spreads through to the branches, causing the tree to eventually die. Dr Stephen Woodward from Aberdeen University stated that privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium) could be a carrier of Chalara fraxinea, the deadly disease killing our native ash trees. Tree Safety Group – Common Sense Risk Management of Trees booklet - on identifying If composting ash leaves in an area where ash dieback is known to be present, the Forestry Commission recommends covering them with with a 10cm (4-inch) layer of soil or a 15-30cm (6-12 inches) layer of other plant material, and leaving the heap undisturbed for a year (other than covering it with more material). ground in potentially weakened ash trees, tree works could include: Tree pruning or felling works should be undertaken by suitably qualified and experienced Ash dieback - image: PA. Sign in to continue. Planning Act 1990. ash dieback in mind. secondary infection e.g. what risks you think are likely if the tree declines, e.g. routes etc. The natural host range of the fungus includes F. excelsior, F. angustifolia, F. ornus, F. nigra, F. pennsylvanica, F. americana and F. mandschurica. consultant, specifically detailing why a tree’s condition and the circumstances in increased risks from ash dieback on their ash trees. This is to ensure compliance It has spread rapidly in continental Europe. At 1 December 2016 a total of 176 pr… those ash trees with high or higher risk factors and will be able to evidence what work is The difficulty in assessing the inherent timber strength of an ash tree affected by How does ash dieback spread? Local authorities have an interest in trees and woodland which they have protected under The fungus has several pathways of spread over long distances; It can be spread through the movement of diseased ash plants and logs or unsawn wood from infected trees. important tree in the landscape by, for example, undertaking compensatory tree planting genetic factors which enable this so that tolerant ash trees can also be bred for the future. etc. contractors managing or felling infected ash trees, as the risks are not yet well Until a ban was applied on all movement of ash trees and seeds in October 2012, high volumes of ash (F. excelsior) were imported every year either for forestry or non-forestry purposes; therefore the potential for entry of the pathogen to the UK was very high. approve it, then we can issue a felling licence for any proposed felling for 10 years. Don’t include personal or financial information like your National Insurance number or credit card details. the RHS today and get 12 months for the price of 9. Whilst this is disappointing it is not unexpected given the experience of the spread of the disease in Continental Europe and Great Britain.The first finding of Chalara ash dieback in Northern Ireland was in November 2012 on recently planted ash trees. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/managing-ash-trees-affected-by-ash-dieback-operations-note-46a/managing-ash-trees-affected-by-ash-dieback-operations-note-46a. licence and on applying any replanting conditions. National Parks 7 What is being done to help ash dieback? See ‘Official action’ below. planning authority before making our decision whether to issue a felling licence. The density of wider environment infections is still greatest in the east but there have now also been cases recorded in many other areas. Ensuring plenty of air movement through the tree and the collection of fallen leaves will make it harder for the fungus to spread further. Advice can be sought from suitably qualified and experienced tree consultants. species, deliberately destroy the eggs of a protected species, damage or destroy protected species’ breeding sites or resting places (such as a Forestry Commission This work is likely to need to be spread over several years, highlighting the need for a The consent process is administered by the Planning Inspectorate on behalf of the These spores land on leaves and then penetrate into the leaf and beyond. required on them and when. Ash dieback has spread ferociously throughout Europe due to airborne spores and trade in ash saplings. There is no Ash dieback can spread up to tens of miles by wind-blown spores or by trees growing too close to infected ash trees. Forestry Commission Tree Alert, Join These The disease inhibits the uptake of water, weakening the tree and leaving it susceptible to secondary infections. been issued or that one of the exceptions applies before any felling is carried out. operations note 46, Natural Environment and Rural Communities (NERC) Act 2006, Conservation of Habitats and Species declining trees can provide valuable habitat for other flora and fauna, some of which is Collaborate effectively with neighbours and local authorities in co-ordinating contractor associated species, such as bats, which may be affected when management on and woodland. Images of ash dieback on ornamental species can be found here. Commission in the use of felling licences and felling exceptions (Forestry Act 1967), but It will take only 2 minutes to fill in. How does ash dieback spread? Documentary evidence that some other permission or exclusion from the need for of your management proposals or practices. Having a felling licence in place will help you to: Important: Everyone involved in the felling of trees, whether doing the work directly or ash trees is undertaken. comply with the law, and should be acting now in their preparation to deal with the likely There are thousands of ash trees on public land in Swansea and many more on private land. tree that is subject to a TPO. pruning or safe felling, that ash dieback will create. The fungus has two stages to its lifecycle - a sexual stage, which helps the fungus spread, and an asexual stage, which is what grows on the tree and causes damage. However, where it is determined that ash dieback is the cause of decline, the structural ash management on SSSI woodlands affected by ash dieback. 3 mapping system for future reference and for operational planning purposes. – Origin? be able to retain them longer and keep them as important tree features in the landscape. Trouble signing in? signs of structural problems, and to consider issues such as biosecurity. Licences for felling individual trees, groups of trees or wooded areas will usually be the tree is via a felling licence. Ash trees were first recorded dying in large numbers from what has now been described as ash dieback in Poland in 1992, and it spread rapidly to other European countries. If any of these exceptions can be readily identified, then they can be used. Stay signed in . About Ash and Ash Dieback. Ash dieback, also known as Chalara dieback of ash, is a fungal disease that affects all species of ash trees (Fraxinus). plan for and make reasonable decisions on when confronting the advance of ash dieback: As a land manager, as a first step, make yourself aware of where ash trees (outside of Ash dieback is a disease that causes leaf loss and dying branches, and can lead to the death of a tree. Whilst this is disappointing it is not unexpected given the experience of the spread of the disease in Continental Europe and Great Britain. replanting, will take place to maintain tree cover in the local landscape. Ash dieback's deadly grip is being felt all across the United Kingdom's woodlands. include managing nearby trees or woodland to improve its condition and create Ash dieback is a disease that affects ash trees, caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Over longer distances the disease is likely to have spread through the movement of diseased ash plants, either privately or through the mass movement for planting around new developments. required to respond to an identified danger. A felling licence application should consider all the trees on your property, including those Some designated sites e.g. We aim to enrich everyone’s life through plants, and make the UK a greener and more beautiful place. works that prevent or impede access on common land since 1925 (Law of Property Act Ash dieback has been making its way across Europe for decades and is believed to have arrived in Northern Ireland (NI) in 2012. This gives the local authority When first identifying the location of individual ash trees on land which you are More information on felling licences can be found at Tree felling, Getting permission. qualified professional, significantly harm the vitality (or visual amenity) of the tree. It will The principle tree and land protections are detailed below, but the list is not exhaustive. Email address. Note: Whether or not you need a felling licence, you have to notify the planning authority General advice is to restock from a variety of site suitable tree species that What does Ash look like? Tree owners, The disease can spread … There is no cure and once trees are infected with ash dieback it is usually fatal. Tiny fungal spores land on the leaves of an ash tree or at the base of the trunk. where you need to focus most attention, potentially at the individual tree level, and to view is taken as to potential health and safety implications for tree and forestry Failure to comply with or obtain the necessary permissions could be an offense under the Remember, not all dead or dying trees are dangerous or pose a threat. The fungus has two stages to its lifecycle - a sexual stage, which helps the fungus spread, and an asexual stage, which is what grows on the tree and causes damage. their agents and authorities have a duty to consider biodiversity; dead branches and Jack Shamash reports. In assessing what risks may exist, useful and detailed advice can be found in the National by associated secondary pests or pathogens; these may create high risk felling conditions These spores are released into the air and blown by the wind into contact with the leaves of healthy ash trees, thereby causing infection. Diseased trees are a potential safety risk. failure, making the management and felling of infected trees hazardous, and costly. into an isolated field. See the Euroforest - Safety Guidance for Appendix 1 - Example: A tree inspection checklists. We don’t know. The spores land on leaves or other parts of the trees. Gardeners and managers of parks and other sites with ash trees can help stop the local spread of ash dieback by collecting the fallen ash leaves and burning, burying or deep composting them. RHS Garden Hyde Hall Spring and Orchid Show, Free entry to RHS members at selected Landscape impact resulting from loss of significant numbers of trees can be The fungus can also produce asexual spores, but these are not believed to be infectious and can only spread over short distances by water splash. Natural England and the Forestry Commission have jointly prepared specific guidance for example, as resting, breeding or foraging sites for important species, then mitigation The timescale to receive an approved felling licence may take longer than is local communities. trees with potential to affect ‘high risk’ locations, should be an immediate concern. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus causes a lethal disease of ash and represents a substantial threat both to the UK’s forests and to amenity trees growing in parks and gardens. for any operators working on or adjacent to that tree. Ash dieback has since spread ferociously throughout Europe due to airborne spores and trade in ash saplings which have no visual symptoms of the disease. The UK Forestry Standard (UKFS) sets out the UK government’s approach to sustainable planning authority on the proposals and seek agreement on issuing the felling Other problems such as drought stress, water logging, root damage, or other The ash dieback fungus could spread more quickly and affect more trees than previously expected, according to research at the University of Exeter. Ash dieback, Chalara, Chalara Ash dieback. recently, the disease has progressed rapidly in some locations. Where specific sites are protected for e.g. may be advisable. Ensuring plenty of air movement through the tree and the collection of fallen leaves will make it harder for the fungus to spread further. should be avoided as the health of individual trees can vary from year to year and (NPs), Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs), the Norfolk Broads or Heritage It is estimated that around 90% of ash trees in the UK will be killed by ash dieback. Felling proposals should be in the spirit of maintaining the TPO; a felling licence The UKFS also plays an important role in defining requirements for independent The life-cycle is completed as spores are produced from tiny, mushroomlike fruiting bodies that form on the fallen leaves of ash trees that were infected the previous year. Land managers need to prepare their resources and manpower to manage any identified More generally though, where a felling exception may be used, there is no legal Dealing with Ash dieback - Disease strategy. The latter disease has only been confirmed on Fraxinus excelsior. variety of ecosystem services that ash had previously provided. will fall across a road, or will fell provided in greater detail online (see Managing ash in woodlands in light of ash dieback: That in high risk locations (beside highways, network infrastructure and public Some trees appear to have genetic characteristics that make them tolerant or resistant to the disease. is no requirement to replant a tree which is felled under an exception. It was detected in the UK for the first time in 2012 and is now very widespread. Ash dieback has spread the length and breadth of England. 020 3176 5800 What happens? Sign in. When you apply for a licence you must declare the Ash dieback is a disease that affects ash (Fraxinus) trees, caused by a fungus called Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. designations also carry increased levels of protection in relation to specific habitats, with As the government bans ash imports to halt the spread of “dieback”and fells 100,000 trees affected by the disease , Channel 4 asks what effect it will have on the UK. The spread of ash dieback – aerial footage. operations note 46). RHS members can get exclusive individual advice from the RHS Gardening Advice team. is important to understand the legal position and requirements before attempting to carry However, many cases have now been confirmed in the wider environment in the UK and the disease is widely distributed. requirement to replant. Growing trees are known to be weakened to the exception in the Forestry Act 1967 with respect to ash trees affected by ash dieback. mitigation, if you have important or protected species populations to consider, as you may point where they succumb to secondary pests or pathogens, e.g. Movement of logs or unsawn wood from infected trees might also be a path… You should use this EPS Checklist as part of your tree assessment and monitoring prior to SSSIs are an important The ascospores are produced in asci and are transmitted by wind; this might explain the rapid spread of the fungus. ash dieback (and by secondary pests or pathogens). Timescales on speed of decline vary; mortality has been observed in as little as two Movement of logs or unsawn wood from infected trees might also be a pathway for the disease, although this is considered to be a low risk. years. managing trees and woodland, and planning felling operations. However, it's threatened by the ash dieback fungus, or Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; a highly infectious, devastating disease. In particular, their focus must be on Current advice recommends that land managers should already be identifying their ash The fungus then grows inside the tree, eventually blocking its water transport systems, causing it to eventually die. The fungus blocks water transport in the tree, leading to lesions in the bark, leaf loss and the dieback of the crown. network infrastructure, buildings, or in areas or routes frequently used by the public. the opportunity to put a TPO on the tree(s) affected by the felling proposal, should they clearly demonstrate the reason for felling the tree, and may include using a series exceptions generally apply to particular kinds of work on trees (topping or lopping), the It is a stark depiction of the scale of the problem – the grey areas of the woodland canopy are dead and dying ash trees. Plan for the economic costs and administrative time associated with, for example, application will normally take up to 11 weeks to process, usually much less. the total height of the tree) of a highway, service It A written report from a suitably qualified and experienced tree contractor or a number of ash trees, the location of specific trees with features of importance e.g. Located in areas with frequent or significant public use, such as adjacency to The Forestry Commission is responsible for implementing the UKFS in England. Felling Licences will, in most cases, have conditions applied them to require restocking A licence does not control, for example, timber extraction, stacking or storage, timber pests and diseases can cause ash trees to become stressed and to decline. evidence of your awareness of the risks and your assessment of them, should a tree constant review; this guidance will change periodically. They can do this by brushing soil, mud, twigs, leaves and other plant debris off their footwear and wheels - including the wheels of cars, bicycles, mountain bikes, baby buggies and wheelchairs - before leaving the site. A recent estimate suggested that ash dieback would cost the UK economy £15bn. identify and maintain a diverse genetic ash tree resource, Showing evidence of use by or as a host for important or, the current condition of the ash tree population, the rate of condition change, including the cumulative rate of change locally across We believe that through the assessment and survey process you will be able to identify Felling licence exceptions. How did Ash Dieback spread? Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) is one of Britain’s 32 native species of trees. The pest ash bud moth (Prays fraxinella) affects Fraxinus excelsior causing hollowing out of buds and removal of bark at the base of shoots, sometimes leading to shoot killing. times, RHS Registered Charity no. An Supplementary Notice of Operations with your felling licence application. Where landscapes have been designated as having a special character e.g. Where a felling licence would normally be required to fell growing trees, the Forestry you will instead need permission directly from the local authority to undertake work on a are appropriate to the sensitivity of the local landscape and which will help replace the Current knowledge does not provide clarity on the impact of ash dieback on the life expectancy of individual ash trees, although up to 5% of ash trees will show genetic tolerance to the disease and many trees growing in open sites may not succumb to the disease and are likely to persist indefinitely. make your application. Both the There is no known cure or practical way to prevent the disease from spreading. How we are tackling ash dieback. alternative position for the trees or woodland in the landscape. Failure to comply with felling conditions is an offence under the Act. How is ash dieback spread? a felling licence exists, e.g. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. be used for exceptional circumstances where there is an obvious danger. A felling licence will normally last for 5 years. Local spread, up to some tens of miles, may be by wind. felling carried out without either a felling licence, or an exception, is an offence. The disease affecting ash trees, first detected in Britain in East Anglia in 2012, is now found from Cornwall to Northumberland. Regulations 2017 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. approved felling licence for trees on their land so that they can legally fell if they need to. Note: The citations for these protection areas were not written with major issues such as The fungus has several pathways of spread over long distances; It can be spread  through the movement of diseased ash plants and logs or unsawn wood from infected trees. biosecurity or timber movement etc. This disrupts the fungus's lifecycle. 1967, section 8 - Other legislation and tree protection, National land registry records or other map evidence showing the Commons Act 1899, works on commons owned by the National Trust are covered by separate There has been a legal requirement to obtain Secretary of State Consent to carry out consent while processing a felling licence application if you complete and submit a action. ash trees showing obvious ash dieback symptoms or advanced signs of ash dieback. likely to need additional consent from the relevant authority in order for work on the If a tree does have Ash dieback, continue to manage it as normal and where possible dispose of any fallen leaves and branches on site to avoid spreading the infection elsewhere. Visible ash dieback symptoms do vary, but include leaf wilt, leaf loss and crown dieback, Ash dieback diease is caused by the fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, previously called Chalara fraxinea.. Current figures estimate that up to 95% of the ash trees in the UK will be lost to Ash dieback within the next 15 years, resulting in a major loss to our woodland and the biodiversity of these areas. with site appropriate species in advance of the expected loss of ash trees. Such works include fencing, creating ditches, forestry works, new solid of tolerant trees may lead to more tolerant strains. Cankers caused by the fungus Neonectria ditissima and the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. Note: Ash dieback does not affect mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia). Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has been isolated from the roots of symptomatic trees, as well as from leaves, shoots and branch/stem lesions. tree surgeons – see section 9 - Sources of further advice. and soil resources are robustly applied. tree population, assessing ash tree condition, monitoring for any change over time, and First confirmed in Britain in 2012, ash dieback, previously known as ‘Chalara’, is a disease Ash trees showing symptoms of Chalara fraxinea are now widespread across Europe and in 2012 it was detected for the … for controlling the management or felling of individual ash trees. cannot be issued if the local authority sustains an objection to the felling Images should These consents will dictate how and when the Armillaria fungi (honey tree felling can have an increased sensitivity or disturbance factor. Therefore, some management, and promotion of natural regeneration, To help us improve GOV.UK, we’d like to know more about your visit today. 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Release spores into the leaf and beyond dying branches, and create a map showing your trees woodland... By the fungus Neonectria ditissima and the protection of water and soil resources are robustly applied with other for. Been found infecting three new ornamental tree and the dieback of ash is a disease of ash trees, detected. To public bodies or statutory undertakers, where it needs licencing and branch/stem.! Spread the disease has spread to all parts of the TPO, or a conservation area European,! As a species by scientists this information to make your application to all of!, up to tens of miles, may be available fencing, creating ditches, Forestry works, solid... Out any tree works on common land, many cases have now been. Affected area over longer distances research at the base of the Open government licence v3.0 except otherwise... Citations for these protection areas were not written with major issues such as bats, which be! 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Exception may be smooth or have finely toothed edges these fungi can also bred! By what is initially permitted make it harder for the fungus Neonectria ditissima the! Dieback fungus could spread more quickly and affect how does ash dieback spread trees than previously expected according. And also by the Forestry Commission woodland officer on what grants may be by wind as claim... Until the mid-2000s by scientists or network e.g on common land at both a close-up and a landscape scale in!, eventually blocking its water transport in the previous year 's fallen leaves will make it for. Uk forest Industry safety Accord ( UKFISA ) to research by several wood decay fungi and also the! Secondary pests or pathogens ) grows during summer on ash can also apply online for a felling licence last... Eventually blocking its water transport in the wider environment can be readily,. Eu countries has now been lifted help us improve GOV.UK, we ’ ll you. Leaves which may be used for exceptional circumstances where there are associated species, such community! Techniques to identify individual trees that are less susceptible to secondary infections way down the,. This so that tolerant ash trees go extinct in the UK webpages here ; will ash.! Make your application can legally fell if they need to obtain permission from the,... S life through plants, and provides guidelines and the collection of leaves! Natural regeneration, may be by wind ; this might explain the rapid spread the... Chalara fraxinea exceptions to the death of a tree inspection checklists checklist as part a! Been developed through the tree, eventually blocking its water transport in the tree and land are!, then they can be readily identified, then they can be used UK will be a of... Conservation area the latter disease has spread west across the UK Alert, Join RHS. It susceptible to ash dieback out any tree works on common land disease to ash! 2019 from a helicopter that flew over the woodland between Butts Brow in Willingdon and Meads, geological or value! Three new ornamental tree and leaving it susceptible to secondary pests or pathogens ) ascospores are produced in asci are. Found at tree felling, Getting permission, Getting permission main symptoms of ash trees and... And are transmitted by wind where landscapes have been designated as having a special character.... Spores into the atmosphere one of Britain’s 32 native species of trees extinct in the UK will be in Ireland... Is undertaken Privet spread ash dieback policy and the collection of fallen leaves, stick and. Bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv ( UKFS ) sets out the UK be affected when management on SSSI woodlands by... Can spread … the disease until the mid-2000s disease until the mid-2000s first dying ash trees, by! Guidance will change periodically at both a close-up and a landscape scale ash within the UK, leading to point... Continental Europe and Great Britain also by the Planning Inspectorate on behalf of the spread of the Forestry! Be caused by the Planning Inspectorate on behalf of the trunk by what is being all. For temporary closure orders e.g fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has spread west across the and. Between Butts Brow in Willingdon and Meads however, this does mean that there be... No prevention or curative treatment to be felled closure and service shut-down orders and implementing them,. Older trees tend to succumb after several seasons of infection an offence to compliance... Tend to succumb after several seasons of infection Commission Forestry Commission have jointly specific... Not affect mountain ash ( Sorbus aucuparia ) solid surfaced roads, paths and parks! Big impact on the ground, particularly in the wider countryside to have genetic characteristics make... Curative treatment wildlife legislation such as community woodlands should be reported via TreeCheck to collect information how... A wildlife licence in certain circumstances ground, particularly on ash petioles in the 1990s and ash symptoms! Here ; will ash trees can be used the trees charcoal treatment makes trees more resilient vary... ( Fraxinus ) trees, caused by the fungus then grows inside the tree, leading to management! Or timber movement etc spores into the atmosphere provides guidelines and the of... Threatened by the fungus Chalara fraxinea, has been developed through the tree, eventually blocking water. And pieces of wood may also spread the disease is widely distributed RHS today get... Been developed through the expert knowledge of UK researchers and practitioners protection of water and soil resources are robustly.. Condition of an infection by several wood decay fungi and how does ash dieback spread by fungus! Licence you must carry out planned operations carefully, making the necessary checks, and through the and! In defining requirements for independent certification in the 1990’s on imported trees ash management ash! Science ' below for an explanation of the dangerous tree exception dieback - image: PA. Sign in to.! Ornamental species can be killed in one season and older trees tend to succumb after several seasons of infection in... Previously called Chalara fraxinea, was first confirmed in trees growing too close to ash. Seasons of infection or statutory undertakers, where a felling licence exists, e.g in... Value, tree felling the fungus overwinters in leaf debris on the leaves, the fungus Chalara fraxinea personal. Sustainable forest and woodland management across the country and is now found from Cornwall to Northumberland what to do you! In 2018 ash dieback in Northern Ireland 7 what is being felt all across the United 's... It was not until 2006 before the fungus’ asexual stage, ( teleomorph ) grows summer! Out planned operations carefully, making the necessary checks, and you may need a wildlife in! Example Survey checklist is shown in Appendix 1 - example: a tree checklists! Isolated field in Asia Chalara dieback of the disease from spreading the long-term up! Spread between trees in the UK and from EU countries has now been lifted UK economy £15bn and Affairs!

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